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Mushtaq Sarwar and Robert M. Skirvin

Adventitious shoots were regenerated from apple (`Wijcik', `McIntosh', `Macspur', `M-26' and `Mutsu') by excising leaves from in vitro-grown shoots, cutting them into three sections, and plating them onto regeneration media. Cultures were kept in the dark for 1 to 4 weeks and then moved to light for further shoot development. MS medium supplemented with thiadiazuron (2-3 μM) and napthaleneacetic acid (5 μM) produced the highest number of shoots per leaf segment. `Wijcik' and `M-26' regenerated best from big leaves, whereas `McIntosh' and `Macspur' regenerated best from small leaves. Shoot formation was enhanced by 3 to 4 weeks of dark treatment and by placing the leaf on medium with its abaxial surface uppermost. The cut surface of leaf segments produced the most regeneration sites. In vitro adventitious shoots were transferred to various concentrations of BA (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 μM to screen them for BA tolerance and to predict their adult growth habit. These shoots will be rooted and transferred to greenhouse and field conditions for long-term evaluations.