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  • Author or Editor: Morris Ingle x
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Abstract

The softening rates of ‘Rome’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) from 10 West Virginia orchards stored at two temperatures were compared in 1974, 1976, and 1978. The rate of softening at 20°C declined with time after harvest, and delaying harvest reduced the rate of softening at 20° but had little effect on softening at 0°. Site had little effect on rate of softening. In two of the three years, the rate of softening at 0° was found to be correlated with firmness at harvest and softening at 20°. Regression analysis provided formulas that can be used to predict softening rate in refrigerated air storage at 0° from firmness data at harvest.

Open Access

Abstract

Firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC), starch index, and internal ethylene concentration were measured in the ‘Starkrimson’, ‘Oregon Spur’, ‘Redchief, ‘Royal Red’, and ‘Topred’ strains of ‘Red Delicious’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh) between 130 and 150 days after full bloom (DAFB). Firmness was significantly correlated with DAFB, although there were increases and decreases between 130 and 144 DAFB. SSC increased and was correlated with DAFB. The starch index increased linearly most of the time. There were differences in starch index between the 1983 and 1984 seasons, but no consistent differences among strains. Internal ethylene concentration began to change later than the other characteristics, but was correlated with DAFB in 90% of the comparisons. Fruit attributes that were significantly correlated in 80% or more of the comparisons were firmness with starch index, SSC with starch index, and starch index with internal ethylene. Firmness was correlated with starch index in 90% of the comparisons, SSC in 85%, and internal ethylene in 60%. Superficial scald was consistently correlated only with DAFB. Changes in firmness during storage were not correlated with any of the characteristics measured.

Open Access

Abstract

Pretreatment or incubation of apple flesh tissue in CaCl2 solutions increased O2 consumption. Tissue incubated in ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) and oxalic acid showed an initial respiratory burst with a subsequent decrease in respiration after 2 hours. Pretreatment alone did not induce a respiratory burst, but rather caused respiration to lag behind controls. The increased O2 consumption induced by CaCl2 was explained by the presumed restoration of membrane integrity in the senescing tissues which allowed a higher rate of respiration than expected.

Open Access

Abstract

Six mid-season orchard sprays of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA), oxalic acid, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), and CaCl, did not consistently influence Ca concentration in leaf, fruit peel, or fruit flesh of 6 cultivars of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

Open Access

Abstract

A rapid method for estimating total Ca of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) peel and flesh was developed using a Ca-selective electrode to measure ionic juice Ca++. Ionic juice Ca++ ranged from 3.2 to 7.2 ppm. Significant correlations were found between total Ca and ionic juice Ca++ for flesh (r = 0.91) and peel (r = 0.87).

Open Access

Abstract

Superficial scald (storage, common scald) is an extensively studied postharvest physiological disorder of apples. Research on superficial scald of apples before 1965 was reviewed by Hardenburg (26); that reported since is summarized in this paper.

Open Access

Superficial scald on apples is effectively controlled by the currently registered inhibitors, diphenylamine and ethoxyquin. However, the availability of these chemicals as scald inhibitors in the future is uncertain. There is renewed interest and need for scald research to develop prediction systems and non-chemical control measures. Scald is believed to be caused by the oxidation of α-farnesene into trienes. The reaction is partially inhibited by the presence of antioxidants in the peel.

We have developed a new method to evaluate scald reaction compounds. This method was used to show that differences exist in reaction compound concentrations between the blushed and nonblushed sides and scalded and normal portions of `Rome' apples. The benefits of this method over the conventional method will also be presented.

Free access

Firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), starch concentration (starch index, SINDEX), and surface color (L*, a*, and b*) were measured for 18 `Delicious' apple strains (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) produced in a replicated, randomized planting at the West Virginia Univ. Experiment Farm, Kearneysville. There was a significant difference between 1991 and 1993 for firmness, L* on the blush or outer side (BL*), Bb*, BChroma, a* (nonblush side), hue angle, and Chroma. There were significant differences between strains in firmness and chromaticities and their derivatives, but not TSS or SINDEX. All measurements changed linearly with days after full bloom (DAFB). There were large chromaticity differences between the two sides of the fruit 130 DAFB, but the nonblush side changed more than the blush side, resulting in little difference at 158 DAFB. BL*(Ba*/Bb*) and L*(a*/b*) produced better separation of strains and sides than did Chroma, although the products were significantly correlated with hue angle and Chroma. The nonblush side of `Delicious' fruits should be monitored to obtain the highest percentage of fruit in the highest grades.

Free access

Chromaticity values (L*, a*, b*) of `Rome Beauty' apples (Malus domestics) were measured at weekly intervals during maturation periods in 1988 and 1989. Chromaticity was measured using a Minolta Chroma Meter CR-200b calorimeter on four quadrants of the fruit at locations midway between the stem and calyx ends. The apples continued to develop red color through the maturation period. After storage, the peel areas where chromaticity was measured were evaluated for scald intensity. The L* value at harvest was correlated positively with scald intensity, while the a* value was correlated negatively. An equation has been developed to describe the relationship between chromaticity values at harvest and scald intensity after storage.

Full access

Lycopene is the predominant carotenoid pigment in tomatoes and primarily responsible for red color. Spectrophotometric procedures for lycopene evaluation although accurate are time consuming and destructive. The objective of this study was to relate chromaticity values (L*,a*,b*) measured using a Minolta Chroma Meter CR-200b portable tristimulus calorimeter with lycopene concentrations in the pericarp of 'Celebrity', 'Mountain Delight' and 'Early Pick' tomatoes. Fruit were selected to encompass varying maturities from green to red ripe and were obtained from a commercial source. Lycopene from individual skin disks or pericarp plugs corresponding to each location of color measurement was extracted in acetone and measured spectrophotometrically at 503 nm. The L* value (a measure of lightness) or a* value (a measure of redness) was determined to be well correlated with lycopene concentration in all 3 cultivars. The linear regression of the lycopene concentration on the ratio of (a*/b*) provided the best R for all cultivars (0.75).

Free access