Genetic resistance to cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in pepper (Capsicum spp.) is recessive, polygenic and, therefore, has been difficult to transfer in breeding programs. Although a few varieties have been released with some resistance, in our tests, these develop severe symptoms that are eventually indistinguishable from the susceptible reactions. Furthermore, accurate and consistent screens for the disease can be relatively difficult; therefore, we report on the detection molecular markers linked to two CMV resistance genes using distributional extreme analysis to identify the relevant quantitative trait loci (QTL). The 12 most resistant and 15 most susceptible individuals were selected from a segregating F2 population of 316 individuals that were derived from the interspecific cross (C. annuum `Jupiter' × C. frutescens BG2814-6). A total of 132 tomato genomic, cDNA, and pepper genomic clones were hybridized to filters with DNA extracted from the distributional extremes. These clones included framework markers representing all pepper linkage groups and also selected clones from regions of the genome identified in a preliminary analysis as possibly involved with CMV resistance. Several clones from the two regions of the genome previously identified appear to be nonrandomly cosegregating with the CMV resistance phenotype in this larger population. Further analysis will be done by adding more markers in the regions and refining the positions of the resistance QTL.
Yiping Zhang, Vince Lackney and Molly Kyle
Konstantinos Anagnostou, Molly Kyle and Rafael Perl-Treves
We have studied the relationship of resistance to watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), and powdery mildew (PM) in melon (Cucumis melo). We have confirmed monogenic dominant inheritance of these four resistances and report that PI414723-4S3, which was initially selected as a source of ZYMR, is also a source of dominant monogenic resistance to PRSV. Further, we observed departure from independent assortment for resistance to WMV and ZYMV in a study of 73 (UC Top Mark × PI414723-4S3) F3 families (χ2 = 39.87 significant at both 0.01 and 0.05 levels), indicating linkage between Wmv and Zym. The map distance between these resistance genes calculated from the number of recombinant families (RF% = 9.58) was 10.5 cM. Compari-sons among WMV, PM, ZYMV-PM, PRSV-PM, ZYMV-PRSV, and WMV-PRSV of 48 (TM × PI414723-4S3) F3 families, which were screened with all four pathogens, showed no consistent cosegregation.
Yiping Zhang, Vince Lackney and Molly Kyle
We report the detection of molecular markers linked to polygenic recessive resistance to cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in pepper using distributional extreme analysis. A total of 132 mapped tomato genomic, cDNA, and pepper genomic clones from different linkage groups in two existing pepper maps, especially from the ones showing tentative CMVR QTLs, were selected as hybridization probes for Southern blots, in which DNA from the 12 most resistant and 15 most susceptible individuals from a large segregating F2 were probed. Several clones appeared to cosegregate with CMV resistance phenotype. Further analysis is being done to place these markers on existing molecular linkage maps. The precise locations of resistance genes can be defined by examining additional markers within the region. The availability of closely linked DNA markers may facilitate marker-aided selection in pepper CMV resistance breeding programs.
Henry M. Munger, Yiping Zhang, Susan L. Fenton and Molly Kyle
Plants to be screened for resistance to mechanically transmitted viruses can be inoculated by using an inexpensive electric-powered leaf blower. This device greatly reduces the amount of time to inoculate large populations when compared with hand-rubbing methods. No significant differences were noted with regard to the frequency of seedlings that escaped infection.
Yiping Zhang, Molly Kyle, Konstantinos Anagnostou and Thomas A. Zitter
Greenhouse and field evaluations of melon (Cucumis melo L.) for resistance to gummy stem blight, caused by the fungus Didymella bryoniae (Auersw.) Rehm, were conducted on 798 U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Plant Introduction (PI) accessions and 24 related Cucumis species. Plants were inoculated at the three to four true-leaf stage with a virulent isolate of D. bryoniae collected from Onondaga County, N.Y., and disease indices were calculated based on foliar and stem symptoms. In greenhouse screens, 43 C. melo accessions showed a high level of resistance. Results were consistent between the optimized greenhouse screening procedure described and inoculated replicated field tests. Of these accessions, a Chinese group, PIs 157076, 157080, 157081, 157082, 157084; another group from Zimbabwe, PIs 482393, 482398, 482399, 482402, 482403, 482408; and some others from different origins, PI 255478 (Korea) and PI 511890 (Mexico), showed high levels of resistance, at least equal to that in PI 140471, the leading source of resistance to date.
Raphael Z. Gilbert, Molly M. Kyle, Henry M. Munger and Stewart M. Gray
Resistance to watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) was transferred by successive backcrossing with selection from Cucumis melo PI 414723 to three melon varieties. Levels of resistance to virus accumulation in leaf tissue were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and procedures are described to select resistant individuals efficiently and accurately in segregating populations. Resistance is controlled by a single dominant. gene designated Wmr. Plants that carry this gene initially develop mosaic symptoms on inoculated leaves, but eventually recover from symptoms, and low or no virus can be detected in the youngest leaves. In contrast, susceptible plants show similar symptoms initially, but remain stunted and symptomatic with reduced fruit yield and fruit quality. Co-infection with other cucurbit viruses, specifically cucumber mosaic virus, papaya ringspot virus, and zucchini yellow mosaic virus, did not overcome resistance to WMV conferred by Wmr.
Kyle E. LaPlant, Lindsay E. Wyatt, George Moriarty, Maryann Fink-Brodnicki, Molly Jahn and Michael Mazourek
Yiping Zhang, Vince K. Lackney, James P. Prince, Jim P. Blauth and Molly M. Kyle
Pepper (Capsicum spp.) has the same basic chromosome number as tomato and other solanaceous plant species (2n = 2x = 24). By using the probes mostly from a tomato map, we have generated three molecular maps of pepper from interspecific F2 crosses of C. frutescens BG 2814-6, C. chinense PI 159234 and C. annuum `NuMex RNaky' with restriction fragment length polymorphisms, isozymes, random amplified polymorphic DNAs, and morphological traits. The best developed map is from C. annuum × C. chinense F2 cross, which currently has 366 markers covered 1081 cM in 18 linkage groups. Three linkage groups were assigned to three chromosomes based on primary trisomics. Several disease resistance genes including monogenic resistance to potyviruses and quantitative trait loci for resistance to tobacco mosaic virus and cucumber mosaic virus have been mapped. The distribution of allele frequency and marker segregation ratios have been analyzed. Chi-square analyses of all clones showed more skewing of segregation ratios in C. annuum × C. chinense population than the other two populations. The skewing occurs throughout the genome and tends towards heterozygote and one of the parents. The order of markers among three pepper maps will be compared and the comparisons of synteny between pepper and tomato maps will be described. A composite of three pepper maps will be presented using JoinMap software.