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  • Author or Editor: Mohamed Y. Hegab x
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Ahmed M. Akl, Abdel-Fattah M. Eid and Mohamed Y. Hegab

This investigation was carried out during the experimental seasons of 1991–92 and 1992–93 on 25-year-old `Washington' navel orange trees grown in an orchard at Beni Suef (≈120 km south of Cairo). This part of the investigation studied the effect of foliar spraying urea (0.5%), a mixture of Zn (0.4%), Mn (0.3%), Fe (0.5%), and Cu (0.3%) in sulfates from 23% Zn, 28% Mn, 19% Fe, and 30% Cu, respectively, and two growth regulators (GA3 at 25 ppm and α-NAA at 10 ppm) on some vegetative aspects and leaf content of some macro- and micronutrients. The investigation also included the effect of number and date of spraying (one spray 3 weeks before flowering, one spray 4 weeks after fruit set, and two sprays at the two dates) on the studied traits. The results showed that the overall treatments included two sprays of urea, micronutrients (Zn, Mn, Fe, and Cu) and NAA at 10 ppm achieved the highest values for average leaf area and shoot diameter in both seasons. The treatment on shoot length was more effective when GA3 replaced NAA. Leaf analysis showed that the application of any of the nutrients was responsible for a pronounced increase in leaf content of that element, but reduced the contents of others. Growth regulator treatments lowered leaf content of the determined elements. However, all other treatments in this study reduced leaf content of P and K.

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Ahmed M. Akl, Abdel-Fattah M. Eid and Mohamed Y. Hegab

This investigation studied the effects of foliar sprays of urea (0.5%), a mixture of Zn (0.4%), Mn (0.3%), Fe (0.5%), and Cu (0.3%) in sulfates from 23% Zn, 28% Mn, 19% Fe, and 30% Cu, respectively, and two growth regulators (GA3 at 25 ppm and α-NAA at 10 ppm), as well as number and date of sprays, on the number of fruit/tree, average fruit weight, and yield/tree in kilograms. Spraying `Washington' navel orange trees with urea and/or micronutrients significantly increased the number of fruit/tree, average fruit weight, and yield/tree expressed in kilograms. However, the treatment including both of them was the most effective in 1991–92 and 1992–93. Application of GA3 and NAA effectively increased the value of the three traits compared with the control; however, spraying the trees with NAA was responsible for higher fruit numbers, while GA3 was more effective in increasing fruit weight. Two sprays of urea, micronutrients, and NAA (or GA3), the first applied 3 weeks before flowering and the second 4 weeks after fruit set, were more effective than spraying once at any of the two dates in producing high numbers of fruit/tree, average fruit weight and yield per tree by weight.

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Ahmed M. Akl, Abdel-Fattah M. Eid and Mohamed Y. Hegab

This part of the investigation studied the effect of foliar spraying with urea (0.5%); a mixture of Zn (0.4%), Mn (0.3%), Fe (0.5%), and Cu (0.3%) in sulphates (from 23% Zn, 28% Mn, 19% Fe, and 30% Cu, respectively); and two growth regulators (GA3 at 25 ppm and α-NAA at 10 ppm); as well as number and date of sprays on fruit volume, percentage of pulp, juice acidity, TSS, reducing and total sugars, TSS: acid ratio, and vitamin C content. The results showed that Washington Navel orange trees receiving urea, micronutrients, or both gave fruit with significantly larger volume compared with the control, but the treatment including both resulted in the highest values for fruit volume in 1991–92 and 1992–93 seasons. GA3 sprays gave the highest fruit volume, followed by NAA, while the water spray (control) gave the lowest values for this trait. Two sprays of urea, micronutrients, and GA3 resulted in the highest fruit volume in 1991–92 and 1992–93 seasons. The effect of different treatments on pulp percentage were slight and mostly insignificant in the two experimental seasons. Spraying urea, micronutrients, or both slightly reduced juice acidity and increased TSS, sugars, and vitamin C contents, as well as TSS: acid ratio; however, both of them together was more effective in this respect. Conversely, either GA3 or NAA caused an appreciable increase in acid content in the juice, but decreased the other determined constituents, except vitamin C, which increased.

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Ahmed M. Akl, Abdel-Fattah M. Eid and Mohamed Y. Hegab

This part of the investigation studied the effect of foliar spraying with urea (0.5%); a mixture of Zn (0.4%), Mn (0.3%), Fe (0.5%), and Cu (0.3%) in sulphates (from 23% Zn, 28% Mn, 19% Fe, and 30% Cu, respectively); and two growth regulators (GA3 at 25 ppm and α-NAA at 10 ppm); as well as number and date of sprays on fruit pedicel pectin content, some flowering aspects, and fruit set and drop percentages. Applying urea, micronutrients, or both significantly increased pectin content in the pedicels of the attached and dropped fruit. The treatment including urea plus micronutrients resulted in the highest values for pectin in fruit stem. Either GA3 or NAA significantly raised pectin content over that of the water-sprayed control. However, NAA was more effective in increasing pectin content in fruit pedicel. The overall treatment including urea and micronutrients with GA3 or NAA was the most effective in producing the highest percentage of leafy inflorescence in 1991–92 and 1992–93 seasons. Any nutrition treatment was significantly effective in increasing fruit set and reducing fruit drop compared with the water-sprayed control; however, the treatment including all sprayed nutrients was the most effective. Application of GA3 or NAA significantly increased fruit set percentage and reduced June and preharvest fruit drop; however, NAA was more effective in reducing fruit drop than GA3.