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  • Author or Editor: Ming Sun x
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Floral scents emitted from eight cultivars of cut lily flowers (Lilium) were analyzed. Floral volatiles were collected by headspace adsorption on sorbent tubes and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using a direct thermal desorption. Fifty volatile compounds were identified. Nine compounds were detected in all lilies, whereas 20 compounds were detected in all scented lilies. The results revealed that non-scented lilies emitted trace amounts of volatile compounds, whereas scented lilies emitted high levels of volatile compounds. Monoterpenoids and benzenoids were the dominant compound classes of volatiles emitted from scented lilies. Myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, linalool, methyl benzoate, and ethyl benzoate were the major compounds of the aroma of scented lilies; 1,8-cineole was also a major compound in the two scented oriental × trumpet hybrid lilies. Scent emissions occurred in a circadian rhythm with higher levels of volatiles emitted during the night. Lilium ‘Siberia’ was selected as a model to investigate the source of the emissions. GC/MS analysis of four flower parts and neutral red staining revealed that tepals were the source of floral scent.

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Chrysanthemums have beautiful flowers with high ornamental value and rich genetic diversity. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to detect the relationships among 12 wild accessions and 62 groundcover chrysanthemum cultivars. Nineteen EcoRI/MseI primer combinations revealed 452 informative polymorphic bands with a mean of 23.8 bands and 71.5% polymorphic rate per primer pair. Jaccard’s coefficient of similarity varied from 0.64 to 0.89, indicating much genetic variation in chrysanthemums. The 74 accessions were classified into two major groups by unweighted pair group method with the arithmetic averages (UPGMA). The dendrogram showed that AFLP variability was closely correlated with both geographic distribution and traditional classification of the wild accessions. Among all accessions, genetic relationship was the most relevant factor in AFLP-marker clustering, whereas petal type was also informative. AFLP technology could be very efficient for discriminating species of chrysanthemum and its related genera and reconstruct their genetic relatedness.

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Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] is a member of the Juglandaceae family. During spring, pecan trees break their bud dormancy and produce new leaves and flowers. Carbohydrates stored in roots and shoots are thought to support the bloom and early vegetative growth during this time until new leaves start the full photosynthetic activity. Spring freeze is known for its damaging effects on pecan bud and flower growth and development. Pecan shoots with leaves and flowers from five scion–rootstock combinations were collected hours before and after a recent spring freeze (below 0 °C for 6 hours, 21 Apr 2021, Perkins, OK, USA). Morphologies of the leaf, bud, and catkin were visually observed, and the morphologies of the anther and pollen in paraffin sections were investigated by light microscopy. Soluble sugar and starch from bark and wood were analyzed using the anthrone reagent method. The Kanza–Mount showed the maximum damage to terminal leaves, buds, and catkins, whereas Maramec–Colby had the minimum damage only to leaves. Pollen grains were shrunk and reduced in number in the anthers in the protandrous Pawnee scions, whereas no pollen damage was observed in the protogynous Kanza scion. Furthermore, bark soluble sugar levels increased in all the scion–rootstock combinations after the freeze, which may indicate a physiological response to the cold stress. Overall, the extent of spring freeze damage of pecans is affected by the growth stage, types of scion and rootstock, and the scion–rootstock interactions. Furthermore, in addition to low temperature, scion–rootstock interactions also affected the starch and soluble sugar contents in wood and bark tissues.

Open Access