The two-component quarantine treatment was shown to be effective against at least 7,000 codling moth (Cydia pomonella) fifth instar larvae infesting `Fuji' apples (Malus × domestica) in each required confirmation test involving two sizes of cartons. After cold storage for 55 days at 36 °F (2.2 °C), infested fruit were placed in vented cartons, either 20-lb [7 × 12 × 12.5 inches (17.8 × 30.5 × 31.8 cm)], or 40-lb [12 × 12.5 × 20.5 inches (30.5 × 31.8 × 52.1 cm)], then fumigated with 0.056 oz/ft3 (56 g·m-3) of methyl bromide for 2 hours at 50 °F (10.0 °C). After each treatment, either no survivors were present or no moribund larvae survived beyond the first week of post evaluation of the larvae.
James D. Hansen, Dennis J. Albano, and Millie L. Heidt
James D. Hansen, Stephen R. Drake, Harold R. Moffitt, Dennis J. Albano, and Millie L. Heidt
A quarantine treatment was developed against codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) for the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars ('Garnet,' `Brooks,' `Tulare,' `Lapins,' and `Sweetheart') exported to Japan. Specific procedures were required to demonstrate treatment efficacy. Dose-mortality responses were measured for each cultivar at regularly incremented concentrations of methyl bromide for 2 hours at 43 °F (6 °C) compared to the dose-mortality curve of an approved cultivar under the same conditions. Based on the overlap of confidence limits, there were no significant differences between new and approved cultivars in group comparisons. In a confirmation test of efficacy, fumigation with methyl bromide at 0.064 oz/ft3 (64 g·m-3) for 2 hours at 43 °F resulted in complete mortality for all codling moth larvae in the treated cultivars. By convention, fumigation at this or the following concentrations [0.048 oz/ft3 (48 g·m-3) for 2 h at 54 to 63 °F (12 to 17 °C); 0.040 oz/ft3 (40 g·m-3) for 2 h at 63 to 72 °F (17 to 22 °C); 0.032 oz/ft3 (32 g·m-3) for 2 h at 72 °F (22 °C) or above] were considered as an efficacious quarantine treatment against the codling moth in sweet cherries. Except for `Brooks,' fumigation did not significantly influence fruit firmness, soluble solids, or titratable acids. Reduction in fruit and stem quality was more associated with temperature than with methyl bromide concentration. `Tulare,' `Lapins,' and `Sweetheart' could be fumigated with minimal change in fruit quality.
James D. Hansen, Harold R. Moffitt, Dennis J. Albano, Millie L. Heidt, Stephen R. Drake, and Jacqueline L. Robertson
Confirmatory tests were performed on a two-component quarantine treatment against the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) for seven apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] cultivars ('Delicious,' `Golden Delicious,' `Braeburn,' `Fuji,' `Gala,' `Jonagold,' and `Granny Smith') intended for export to Japan and Korea. Treatment consists of a 55-day cold storage at 40 °F (2.2 °C) or below, followed by a 2-hour methyl bromide fumigation (0.056 oz/ft3 or 56 g·m-3) at 50 °F (10 °C). No eggs or larvae survived this treatment. Comparison tests were conducted on all cultivars to demonstrate no difference in insect responses between a previously accepted cultivar and proposed cultivars. Concentration-mortality responses were determined for each of the components and no statistical differences were found in the regression slopes of pest mortality with controlling variable (either cold exposure or fumigation) among all cultivars. Descriptive mathematical models, developed for the effects of cold storage on egg mortality and for methyl bromide fumigation on larvae mortality, were sigmoid curve equations.