A study was conducted to evaluate establishment of root-bound vs. nonroot-bound container-grown Plumbago auriculata Lam. in a landscape. A total of 144 plants were transplanted from #1 containers in a rain-out shelter at Mid-Florida Research and Education Center, Apopka, Fla., in June 2004. The field soil type was amended with composted yard waste. The three treatment types used for the study were: 1) root-bound plants; 2) root-bound plants with a vertical slice made through the root ball at a 90° angle; and 3) nonroot-bound plants. To evaluate the effect of these three treatments during the course of establishment period, harvesting was done once every 2 weeks. Data on growth indices (height × width × width), shoot dry weight, root dry weight, and length of the longest root were recorded. The experimental design was a completely randomized design consisting of three treatments, 12 harvest dates (days after planting), and four replicates per harvest date. Plants were maintained according to the best management practices recommended by the UF/IFAS, and were irrigated once a day using microirrigation. Experimental data were analyzed for significance of correlation among variables using SAS version 9.1. Results of the correlation and regression analysis indicated that the increase in the shoot dry weights (g), root dry weights (g), growth indices (m3), and root: shoot ratio had significant relationship with the harvest dates. Correlation among harvest dates and shoot dry weight, root dry weight, or growth indices was found to be positive. However, results of the study indicated that as the number of days after planting increased, the root to shoot ratio decreased.
Sudeep Vyapari, Edmund L. Thralls, and Michele S. Scheiber
Amy L. Shober, Kimberly A. Moore, Christine Wiese, S. Michele Scheiber, Edward F. Gilman, Maria Paz, Meghan M. Brennan, and Sudeep Vyapari
The survival and quality of shrubs planted in the landscape from containers is dependent on irrigation to ensure the development of a healthy root system. This study determined the effect of irrigation frequency on survival, quality, canopy growth index, root to canopy spread ratio, and dry root and shoot biomass of Viburnum odoratissimum Ker-Gawl. (sweet viburnum) planted in Florida in USDA hardiness Zones 8b (Citra, FL), 9a (Balm, FL), and 10b (Ft. Lauderdale, FL). Sweet viburnum shrubs were planted into the landscape from 11.4-L (#3) containers and irrigated with 3 L every 2, 4, or 8 days. Shrubs were planted on eight dates over a 2-year period (2004 to 2006). Irrigation frequency during the 12- to 22-week irrigation period had no significant effect on sweet viburnum survival or aesthetic quality at any location. In addition, there was no irrigation effect on root spread, root to shoot biomass ratio, or root biomass for shrubs planted in Zones 8b or 9a. However, sweet viburnum irrigated every 2 days had greater canopy growth index at 28 and 104 weeks after planting than shrubs irrigated every 4 or 8 days in Zone 8b and every 8 days in Zone 9a. When planted in Zone 10b, sweet viburnum irrigated every 2 days exhibited greater growth index, shoot biomass, and root biomass than plant receiving irrigation every 4 days. Although more frequent irrigation (every 2 days) resulted in more plant growth in Zones 8b and 10b, sweet viburnum survived and grew after planting under natural rainfall conditions provided they were irrigated with 3 L of water every 8 days during establishment until roots reached the canopy edge in hardiness Zones 8b and 9a and every 4 days in hardiness Zone 10b. Subsequent supplemental irrigation (hand-watering) was only needed after irrigation was ended when plants exhibited visible signs of drought stress and there was no measurable rainfall for 30 consecutive days.