A limiting factor in container production is cold temperature. Young roots have been found to be less hardy than mature roots (Steponkus, 1976; Studer et al., 1978). Proper overwintering procedures are essential to assure a viable crop in the spring. A common overwintering practice is the application of a preemergent dinitroanaline (DNA) herbicide prior to covering. The objectives of this research were to: 1) determine young and mature root hardiness values for containerized plants that did and did receive DNA herbicides prior to overwintering; 2) investigate differences in regrowth potential between untreated and DNA herbicide treated containers 30, 60, and 180 days after freezing (DAF). Research began in June 2003 and concluded Mar. 2004. In Aug. and Oct. 2003, herbicide treatments of 1× oryzalin (2.0 lb/acre a.i.), prodiamine (2.0 lb/acre a.i.), pendimethalin (3.0 lb/acre a.i.), trifluralin (2.0 lb/acre a.i.), or no treatment (control) was applied to the plants. In Jan. or Mar. 2004, plants were frozen to temperature treatments of, 0, –5, –10, –15, or –20 °C. After freezing, they were placed in a heated greenhouse and evaluated for regrowth. Regrowth and hardiness were evaluated two ways: by a visual rating score (0-10), where 0 = dead and 10 = healthy; and plant live height. Results pooled over all species, temperatures, sampling dates at 30 DAF show prodiamine significantly increased hardiness (23.7%) compared to the control. Results pooled over all species, temperatures, sampling dates, and all DAF show prodiamine significantly increased regrowth potential (24.5%) compared to the control. Both sampling date and DAF were significant when pooling over all species, temperatures, and herbicide treatments, indicating root injury had occurred.
Michele Bigger and Hannah M. Mathers
Hannah M. Mathers and Michele M. Bigger
Many nurseries within Ohio and northeastern, southeastern, and western United States, and Canada have reported severe bark splitting and scald-type problems in 2005. The amount and severity of damage seen in 2005 has been unlike anything seen before. At Ohio State University, samples from across the state started appearing in 2003–04 and increased in incidence in 2005. Growers' reports of exceeding losses of 5% of their inventory or 3000 to 4000 trees per nursery are not uncommon. At an average cost of $125 per tree and with the number of nurseries reporting problems, the stock losses in Ohio have been staggering, in excess of several million dollars. The trees that we have seen problems on in 2005 have been callery pears, yoshino cherry, kwanzan cherry, crab apples, sycamore, serviceberry, hawthorn, mountain ash, black gum, paper bark maple, japanese maples, norway maple `Emerald Queen', red maples, kousa dogwood, magnolia `Elizabeth' and the yellow magnolias such as `Butterflies', `Sawada's Cream', `Yellow Bird', and `Yellow Lantern'. It has long been observed that the actual cause of a bark crack was “preset” by a wound such as the improper removal of a basal sprout, herbicide, leaving of a branch stub, or lack of cold hardiness. Cold and frost may be contributing to the increase in bark splitting across the United States; however, new research results at Ohio State University regarding the effects of DNA preemergent herbicides in the reduction of root hardiness and regrowth potential, sprout removal and other mechanical injuries, and postemergent herbicide application will reveal these are more the causal agents.
Michele M. Bigger*, Hannah M. Mathers, Jennifer A. Pope and Luke T. Case
The objective of this study was to evaluate the extent and duration of efficacy and phytotoxicity of two new formulations of dichlobenil (Casoron 50WP and Casoron CS), applied alone or onto two bark mulches, pine nuggets or shredded hardwood. The herbicide treated bark was compared to a control (weedy check), direct sprays of the herbicides and mulch alone. Three granular preemergent herbicides, dichlobenil (Casoron 4G) and two formulation of flumioxazin (Broadstar 0.17G, VC1351, and VC1453) were also evaluated for a total of 12 treatments. The trial started on May 23, 2003. Visual ratings and dry weights were evaluated for efficacy at 4, 8 and 16 weeks after treatment (WAT) and phytotoxicity 2, 4, 8, and 16 WAT. Ratings of efficacy were based on a 1-10 scale where, 0 represents no control, 10 represents complete control. Visual rating scores of 1 (no injury) to 10 (complete kill) were used for phytotoxicity on Salvia May Night. The two most efficacious treatments are Casoron CS as a directed spray (7.9) and treated on pine nuggets (9.0). The hardwood bark with Casoron CS also was providing an efficacy rating of 7.75 in the analyses of combined dates 4 and 8 WAT. The weed control provided by the untreated hardwood bark and pine nuggets was not significantly different from the control. Four treatments—Casoron CS and 4G, Casoron CS on pine, and CS on hardwood—provided ratings of 3 and above for phytotoxicity, in the analyses of combined dates 2, 4, 8, and 16 WAT. Although the Casoron CS was the second most efficacious treatment it had a phytotoxicity rating of 9.25 over combined dates. The CS on pine, however, had a significantly reduced phytotoxicity rating (3.5) and superior efficacy.
Hannah M. Mathers, Elizabeth Grosskurth, Michele Bigger, Luke Case and Jenny Pope
Currently, the majority of tree liners used in the Ohio nursery industry are imported, mainly from the West Coast. The Ohio growing season is 156 days, whereas the Oregon season is 225 days. We are developing an Ohio liner production system, utilizing a retractable roof greenhouse (RRG) that extends the growing season. Liners grown in a RRG have shown greater caliper, height, and root and shoot dry weight than those grown outside of a RRG (Stoven, 2004). The objective of this research was to compare the growth of RRG-grown liners, outdoor-grown liners, and West Coast-grown liners when planted in the field. Four tree species [Quercus rubra, Malus `Prairifire', Acer ×freemannii `Jeffersred' (Autumn Blaze®), and Cercis canadensis] were started from either seed or rooted cuttings in early 2003. They were grown in a glass greenhouse and then moved to their respective environments in March (RRG) and May (outside). In Oct. 2003, the Ohio-grown liners were planted in the field at the Waterman Farm of The Ohio State University, Columbus. In Spring 2004, liners from the West Coast were purchased and planted in the same field setting. Caliper and height were measured in June and Sept. 2004. After one season in the field, trees grown from the RRG and outdoor environments resulted in greater height and caliper than the West Coast liners in Malus, Acer, and Cercis. Acer liners from Oregon had a greater increase in height from June to September than those grown outdoors or in the RRG. Quercus liners from the RRG and outdoor environments displayed greater caliper growth and growth in height than those from the West Coast. Across all species, liners grown from the RRG had the greatest increase in caliper growth.