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  • Author or Editor: Michel Pitrat x
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Abstract

Seven previously undescribed genes in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) for resistance to powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlecht. ex Fr.) Poll., races 1 and 2] are reported. Progeny 92417 has a recessive gene for resistance to race 1, which is nonallelic to Pm-1. Breeding line WMR 29 has a gene for resistance to race 1 that is allelic to the recessive gene in 92417, but it is not known whether the two genes are identical alleles. Plant introduction 414723, 92417, and WMR 29 differentiated isolates of S. fuliginea race 2 at Montfavet, France, and Riverside, Calif. Comparative responses of F1, F2, and BC progenies from crosses involving 92417, PI 414723, and WMR 29 revealed six new genes for resistance to race 2. Genetic relationships among these seven genes are not fully known. Allelic and linkage relationships of these seven genes with the five previously known genes for powdery mildew resistance are also unknown.

Open Access

Powdery mildew [Podosphaera xanthii (Castagne) Braun & Shishkoff (syn. Sphaerotheca fuliginea auct. p.p.)] is now a common disease on watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] in the United States. In this study, the entire available U.S. Plant Introduction collection of Citrullus Schrad. ex Eckl. & Zeyh. species was evaluated for resistance to P. xanthii race 1W. The collection consists of four Citrullus species and one Praecitrullus Pangalo species [C. lanatus var. citroides (L.H. Bailey) Mansf., C. colocynthis (L.) Schrad., C. rehmii De Winter, and P. fistulosus (Stocks) Pangalo]. Wild-type accessions tended to be more resistant more often than the cultivated species, C. lanatus var. lanatus. None were immune, eight of the 1573 accessions exhibited high levels of resistance, and another 86 demonstrated intermediate resistance. Stem and leaf disease severity were weakly correlated (r 2 = 0.64, P = 0.001). The majority of accessions having resistance were collected in Zimbabwe. Resistance was found in four species.

Free access

Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii (Px) is an economically important disease of bitter gourd (BG; Momordica charantia) in Asia. High-level resistance to CPM is known in various BG accessions that have been used to develop BG breeding lines that originated in different countries. BG breeding lines THMC 113 (Belize), THMC 143 (India), THMC 153 (Thailand), THMC 167 (India), and THMC 170 (Taiwan) possess high-level resistance to BG Px race (BG-CPM), designated Mc-1 from a field at Kamphaeng Saen, Thailand, whereas THMC 144 (India) is susceptible. Our objective was to determine the inheritance of resistance to BG-CPM race Mc-1. To that end, THMC 144 (India) was crossed with the five resistant lines. The parents and their respective F1, F2, backcross progenies were evaluated for BG-CPM disease severity in inoculated field and growth chamber tests. Resistance to BG-CPM race Mc-1 in the five resistant lines was controlled by at least two independent, recessive genes. Intercrosses of the BG-CPM–resistant lines revealed allelic resistances in four of the breeding lines: THMC 113, THMC 153, THMC 167, and THMC 170. Resistance in THMC 143 was clearly non-allelic for resistance to BG-CPM with the other four BG-CPM–resistant lines.

Free access

Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a commercially and nutritionally important market vegetable in Asia cultivated mainly by smallholder farmers. Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii (Px) is a nearly ubiquitous and serious fungal disease of bitter gourd. Five bitter gourd breeding lines (THMC 113, THMC 143, THMC 153, THMC 167, and THMC 170) were selected at the World Vegetable Center for resistance to a local isolate of Px in Kamphaeng Saen, Thailand. We evaluated the resistance potential of these five inbred lines against local isolates of Px at 12 locations in five Asian countries. Plants were inoculated with the respective local Px isolate 15 and 30 days after transplanting and additional Px-infected plants of the inoculated control were interplanted throughout each test. Plants were rated 60 days after transplanting for CPM reaction using a 0 (no evidence of infection) to 5 (>75% infection evident on individual leaves) disease severity scale. THMC 153 and THMC 167 were resistant to the local race of Px in all locations, whereas THMC 143 was observed resistant in all test locations except one in China. THMC 113 was resistant in each location except one in India. THMC 170 was susceptible in three locations in India. The multilocation tests revealed four unique Px races on bitter gourd in different Asian countries and sources of resistance for breeding CPM-resistant bitter gourd cultivars. Six strains of Px isolated from other cucurbits (Cucumis and Cucurbita) and representing five melon CPM races were unable to infect the susceptible M. charantia accession THMC 144 and the five resistant breeding lines, indicating pathotype differences between them and an isolate of M. charantia origin typed as race 1 on melon. THMC 143 and THMC 167, which originated from India, exhibited good yield potential in trials conducted in Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam, and Bangladesh.

Free access