You are looking at 1 - 10 of 62 items for
- Author or Editor: Michael R. Evans x
Aggregates produced from finely ground waste glass [Growstones (GS); Earthstone Corp., Santa Fe, NM] have been proposed to adjust the physical properties of peat-based substrates. The GS had a total pore space (TPS) of 87.4% (by volume), which was higher than that of sphagnum peat and perlite but was similar to that of parboiled fresh rice hulls (PBH). The GS had an air-filled pore space (AFP) of 53.1%, which was higher than that of sphagnum peat and perlite but lower than that of PBH. At 34.3%, GS had a lower water-holding capacity (WHC) than sphagnum peat but a higher WHC than either perlite or PBH. The bulk density of GS was 0.19 g·cm−3 and was not different from that of the perlite but was higher than that of sphagnum peat and PBH. The addition of at least 15% GS to sphagnum peat increased the AFP of the resulting peat-based substrate. Substrates containing 25% or 30% GS had a higher AFP than substrates containing equivalent amounts of perlite but a lower AFP than substrates containing equivalent PBH. Substrates containing 20% or more GS had a higher WHC than equivalent perlite- or PBH-containing substrates. Growth of ‘Cooler Grape’ vinca (Catharanthus roseus), ‘Dazzler Lilac Splash’ impatiens (Impatiens walleriana), and ‘Score Red’ geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum) was similar for plants grown in GS-containing substrates and those grown in equivalent perlite- and PBH-containing substrates.
Plant growth was evaluated in substrates containing varying proportions of processed poultry feather fiber (feather fiber). `Cooler Blush' vinca (Catharanthus roseus) and `Orbit Cardinal' geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum) dry shoot and dry root weights were not significantly different among plants grown in sphagnum-peat-based and perlite-based substrates containing 0% to 30% feather fiber. `Pineapple Queen' coleus (Coleus blumei) dry shoot weights were not significantly different among plants grown in substrates containing 0% to 50% feather fiber. Coleus dry root weights were not significantly different among the substrates containing 0% to 40% feather fiber. `Better Boy' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) dry shoot weights were not significantly different among the substrates containing 0% to 30% feather fiber. Tomato dry root weights were not significantly different among the substrates containing 0% to 30% feather fiber, but tomato grown in substrates containing 40% to 60% feather fiber had significantly lower dry root weights than tomato grown in substrates containing 0% to 30% feather fiber. `Salad Bush' cucumber (Cucumis sativus) dry shoot and dry root weights were not significantly different between plants grown in 0% to 50% feather fiber, but those gown in substrates containing 60% feather fiber had significantly lower dry shoot weights than those grown in substrates containing 0% feather fiber. Dry shoot and root weights of coleus and tomato grown in SB-300 substrate amended with 20% or 30% feather fiber were not significantly different from coleus and tomato grown in SB-300 without feather fiber. Dry shoot and dry root weights of coleus and tomato were significantly lower for plants grown in SB-300 amended with 40% feather fiber than for plants grown in SB-300 without feather fiber. For all species tested, plants grown in substrates containing up to 30% feather fiber were not significantly different from those grown in substrates containing 0% feather fiber and were of marketable qualities.
Two grades of ground bovine bone were evaluated as potential alternatives to perlite in horticultural substrates. The bulk density of small and large bone-amended substrates was significantly higher than equivalent perlite-amended substrates. Large and small bone increased the air-filled pore space of sphagnum peat. However, at 10% and 20% (v/v), neither size of bone resulted in as high an air-filled pore space as equivalent amounts of perlite. At 30% and 40%, incorporation of small bone resulted in a similar air-filled pore space as incorporation of equivalent amounts of perlite, and incorporation of large bone resulted in a higher air-filled pore space than incorporation of equivalent amounts of perlite. Water-filled pore space and water-holding capacities of substrates were inversely related to air-filled pore space. When placed in a moist substrate, mineral elements within the bone were able to leach into the substrate over time. Substrates amended with 40% large and small bone had significantly higher concentrations of ammonium (NH4 +), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), and chloride (Cl-) than the 40% perlite-containing substrates. Substrates amended with 40% large bone had similar concentrations of magnesium (Mg), sulfur (S), iron (Fe), and copper (Cu) while substrates amended with 40% small bone had higher levels of these elements than perlite-amended substrates. Substrate concentrations of nitrate (NO3 -), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and boron (B) were not different among the substrates after 4 weeks in the greenhouse. The pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and NH4 + levels of bone-amended substrates increased to levels significantly higher than recommended and resulted in rapid mortality of `Orbit Cardinal' geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum), `Cooler Blush' vinca (Catharanthus roseus), and `Dazzler Rose Star' impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) plants grown in bone-amended substrates. Therefore, ground bovine bone was not a feasible alternative to perlite for use in horticultural substrates.
Vegetative 6-cm Euphorbia pulcherrima `Freedom' cuttings were placed in black 200-ml bottles containing humic acid solutions, nutrient solutions, or deionized water. Humic acid solutions were prepared using Enersol SC (American Colloid, Arlington Heights, Ill.). Concentrations of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/L humic acid were compared to solutions containing mineral element concentrations equivalent to those contained in humic acid solutions. After 4 weeks, 88%, 75%, and 88% of cuttings had rooted in the 500, 750, and 1000 mg/L humic acid solutions, respectively. Cuttings placed in nutrient controls or deionized water failed to form roots after 4 weeks. Average root fresh mass was 175, 80, and 72 mg for cuttings placed in 500, 750, and 1000 mg/L humic acid solution, respectively. Average number of roots formed per cutting ranged from 21 in the 500-mg/L solution to 6 in the 1000-mg/L solution. Average lengths ranged from 26 mm in the 500-mg/L to 12 in the 1000-mg/L solution. As humic acid concentration increased, average root fresh mass, average number of roots, and the length of the longest root significantly decreased.
The objective for this research was to evaluate the growth of a long-term crop in biodegradable containers compared with traditional plastic containers using a subirrigation system. Plastic, bioplastic, solid ricehull, slotted ricehull, paper, peat, dairy manure, wood fiber, rice straw, and coconut fiber containers were used to evaluate plant growth of ‘Rainier Purple’ cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum) in ebb-and-flood subirrigation benches. The days to flower ranged from 70 to 79 and there were no significant differences between the plastic containers and the biocontainers. The dry shoot weights ranged from 23.9 to 37.4 g. Plants grown in plastic containers had dry shoot weights of 27.6 g. The dry shoot weight of plants grown in containers composed of wood fiber was 23.9 g and was lower than plants grown in plastic containers. The plants grown in the bioplastic, solid ricehull, slotted ricehull, paper, peat, dairy manure, rice straw, and coconut fiber containers had significantly higher dry shoot weights than plants grown in plastic containers. Dry root weights ranged from 3.0 to 4.0 g. The plants grown in the plastic containers had dry root weights of 3.0 g. Plants grown in paper and wood fiber containers had higher dry root weights than those grown in plastic containers. The only container that negatively affected plant growth was the wood fiber container. Plants preformed the best in solid ricehull, slotted ricehull, and coconut fiber containers based on dry shoot and dry root weights, but all containers were successfully used to produce marketable cyclamen plants.
A top coat is a lightweight substrate component used in seed germination. The seeds are typically placed on a substrate such as peat and then the seeds are covered with a layer of the top coating substrate. The top coat serves to maintain adequate moisture around the seeds and to exclude light. Vermiculite and cork granulates (1 mm) were used as top coat substrates for seed germination to determine if cork granulates could be successfully used as an alternative to vermiculite. The cork granulates had a bulk density of 0.16 g·cm−3, which was higher than that of vermiculite that had a bulk density of 0.12 g·cm−3 . Cork granulates had an air-filled pore space of 22.7% (v/v), which was higher than vermiculite which was 13.2%. The water-holding capacity of vermiculite was 63.4% (v/v), which was higher than that of cork granulates that was 35.1%. Seeds of ‘Rutgers Select’ tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), ‘Dazzler Lilac Splash’ impatiens (Impatiens walleriana), ‘Orbital Cardinal Red’ geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum), ‘Better Belle’ pepper (Capsicum annuum), and ‘Cooler Grape’ vinca (Catharanthus roseus) were placed on top of peat and covered with a 4-mm top coating of either vermiculite or cork granulates. For tomato, impatiens, and vinca, days to germination were similar between seeds germinated using vermiculite and granulated cork as a top coat. Days to germination of geranium and pepper were significantly different with geranium and pepper seeds coated with cork granulates germinating 0.7 and 1.5 days earlier than those coated with vermiculite. For tomato, impatiens, and geranium, the number of seeds germinating per plug tray was similar between the top coats. Number of seeds germinating per tray for pepper and vinca were significantly different. Pepper had an average of 2.8 more seeds germinating per tray, and vinca had an average of 2.4 more seeds germinating per tray if seeds were germinated using granulated cork vs. vermiculite. For all species, dry shoot and dry root weights were similar for seedlings germinated using cork and vermiculite top coats.
Pepper (Capsicum annuum) and impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) plants were grown in substrates composed of 20% perlite and 20%, 40%, 60% or 80% of a coarse, medium or fine grind of fresh rice hulls with the remainder being Sphagnum peat. Impatiens grown in substrates containing 40% of a coarse, medium or fine and 80% of a fine grind of rice hulls had similar shoot dry weights as those grown in a substrate containing 80% peat. Only impatiens grown in a root substrate containing 40% of the coarse grind of fresh rice hulls had lower root dry weight than those grown in substrates containing 80% peat. Peppers grown in a substrate containing 60% and 80% of a coarse, 60% of a medium or 60% and 80% of a fine grind of fresh rice hulls had similar shoot dry weights as those grown in a substrate containing 80% peat. There were no significant differences in pepper root dry weights among the substrates. Impatiens and pepper plants grown in a substrate containing 80% of the fine grind of fresh rice hulls were similar to those grown in 80% peat, and therefore, the fine grind of fresh rice hulls served as a suitable substitute for Sphagnum peat.
Biological substrate amendments including SG-11, Subtilex, SoilGuard, ActinoIron, Companion, RootShield and BioYield were evaluated for their efficacy to control common soil-borne fungal and fungal-like pathogens when incorporated into the substrate at transplanting. The biological agents were incorporated into an 80% Sphagnum peat and 20% perlite substrate at the label recommended rates and four-to-six-leaf plugs of the test species were transplanted into the substrates. Substrates were either inoculated or uninoculated with a test pathogen. Pathogen-host combinations included Pythium ultimum on geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum), Phytophthora nicotianae and Pythium aphanidermatum on vinca (Catharanthus roseus), and Theilaviopsis basicoli on pansy (Viola ×wittrockiana). The incidence of disease development, plant mortality and root fresh weights did not differ among the biological agents and the inoculated controls. Therefore, under the conditions of this study, the biological agents did not provide significant disease suppression. Pansy and vinca plants grown in uninoculated substrates amended with Subtilex had significantly higher shoot dry weights than those grown in unamended substrates. Pansy, vinca and tomato plants grown in uninoculated substrates amended with SG-11 had significantly higher shoot dry weights than those grown in unamended substrates.
Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Pelargonium × hortorum (geranium), Tagetes patula (marigold), and Cucurbita pepo (squash) seed were sown into plug cells (5 ml volume) filled with a germination substrate containing peat, vermiculite, and perlite. After the seed were sown, the substrate was saturated with solution containing 0 (deionized water) 2500, or 5000 mg/L humic acid (HA). Additional treatments included seed which were sown into the substrate and saturated with nutrient solutions corresponding to the nutrient concentration of each humic acid solution. Seed were placed in a growth chamber and maintained at 22°C and under a 12-h photoperiod with a PPF of 275 μmol·m–2·s–1. After 10 d for cucumber and squash and 14 d for marigold and geranium, plants were harvested and root and shoot fresh mass recorded. Shoot fresh mass was not significantly affected by treatment for any of the species tested. Except for squash, root fresh mass was significantly increased by humic acid treatments. For cucumber, root fresh mass ranged from 0.24 g in deionized water to 0.34 g in 2500 and 5000 mg/L HA. Geranium root fresh mass ranged from 0.03 g in deionized water and 5000 mg/L HA to 0.05 g in 2500 mg/L HA. Marigold root fresh mass ranged from 0.02 g in deionized water to 0.03 g in 2500 and 5000 mg/L HA. Root fresh mass for nutrient controls were similar to those for deionized water.
Geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum L.H. Bailey) `Freckles' and poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzch) `Freedom' were grown in six peat and shredded-rubber substrates formulated to contain 75:25:0, 50:50:0, 25:75:0, 75:0:25, 50:0:50, 25:0:75 sphagnum peat: fine-grade rubber: coarse-grade rubber (by volume). Additionally, plants were grown in a 50 peat: 30 perlite: 20 loam (by volume) control substrate. Shredded rubber-containing substrates had higher bulk densities, lower total pore space, and higher total solids than the control substrate. Fine rubber-containing substrates had lower air-filled pore space (AFP) and lower water-holding capacities (WHC) than the control substrate. Substrates containing 25% coarse rubber had lower AFP and WHC than the control, but substrates containing 50% and 75% coarse shredded rubber had higher AFP and lower WHC than the control. Shredded rubber-containing substrates had significantly higher levels of Zn than the control substrate. Plants grown in rubber-containing substrates had tissue Zn levels significantly higher than the control and at levels reported to be phytotoxic in other species. Geraniums grown in rubber-containing substrates had lower root and shoot fresh mass, were shorter, and had fewer axillary branches than those grown in the control substrate. Poinsettia plants grown in rubber-containing substrates were shorter, had lower shoot fresh mass, fewer bracts, and lower bract area as compared to plants grown in the control substrate.