Physiological and biophysical changes were monitored during shoot maturation and bud endodormancy induction in grape (Vitis riparia Michx.) under controlled environments. Growth, dry weight (DW), periderm development, bud endodormancy, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 relaxation times were monitored at 2, 4, or 6 weeks of long-photoperiod [long day (LD), 15 h, endodormancy inhibition] or short-photoperiod [short day (SD), 8 h, endodormancy induction] treatments at 15/9 h day/night thermoperiod of 25/20 ± 3 °C. Shoots on LD plants grew throughout the entire study period, although the rate of growth decreased slightly during the 6th week. Shoot growth slowed significantly after 2 weeks of SD, was minimal by the 4th week of SD and most of the shoot tip meristems had abscised after 6 weeks of SD. Endodormancy was induced after 4 weeks of SD. DW of the stem and buds increased with increasing duration of LD and SD. While bud DW increased more under SD than LD, stem DW increased more under LD than SD. T2 relaxation times were calculated from images of transverse sections of the grape node. There was a slight decrease in the T2 times in the node tissues with increased duration of LD treatment, whereas SD induced a significant decrease in T2 times during endodormancy induction. T2 values for the node decreased after 4 weeks of SD, coinciding with endodormancy induction. Separation of node tissues into bud, leaf gap, and the remainder of the stem and analysis of the proportion of short and long T2 times within those tissues indicated differential tissue response. A greater proportion of short T2 times were observed in the 2-week SD leaf gap tissue than in the LD and the proportion of short T2 times continued to increase with subsequent SD treatment. Bud and all other stem tissues had a greater proportion of short T2 times after 4 weeks of SD, coinciding with bud endodormancy induction. The proportion of short and long T2 times in a tissue was a better indicator of endodormancy than the averaged T2 time for the tissue. Thus, MRI allows nondestructive identification of differential tissue response to photoperiod treatments and makes it possible to separate normal vegetative maturation responses from endodormancy induction.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can be used to examine tissue structure and developmental changes during growth and maturation of plant organs nondestructively. Spin-lattice, relaxation time (T1)-weighted, inversion recovery, spin-echo images of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) flower buds were acquired at 3 and 1 day before anthesis and receptacles at 4, 10, 15, and 25 days after anthesis (DAA). The central pith and ovules of flower buds imaged intensely with inversion echo times between 0.1 and 0.5 seconds. Achenes and the vascular cylinder, composed of vascular bundles surrounding the pith, were prominent in receptacles at 4 and 10 DAA. Vascular bundles leading to achene positions, cortex and pith tissues, and the vascular cylinder were evident in receptacles at all developmental stages. A general trend to homogeneity of structure was observed in images of receptacles nearing full maturity (25 DAA). Inversion recovery, spin-echo NMR microimaging may be useful for studying internal physicochemical changes in flower buds and fruit of strawberry and of other fruit crops.
The effect of IAA on apical dominance in apple buds was examined in relation to changes in proton density (free water) and membrane lipid composition in lateral buds. Decapitation induced budbreak and enhanced lateral bud growth. IAA replaced apical control of lateral buds and maintained paradormancy. Maximal inhibition was obtained when IAA was applied immediately after the apical bud was removed; delaying application reduced the effect of IAA. An increase in proton density in lateral buds was observed 2 days after decapitation, whereas the change in membrane lipid composition occurred 4 days later. Removing the terminal bud increased membrane galacto- and phospholipids and the ratio of unsaturated to corresponding saturated fatty acids. Decapitation also decreased the ratio of free sterols to phospholipids in lateral buds. Applying thidiazuron to lateral buds of decapitated shoots enhanced these effects, whereas applying IAA to the terminal end of decapitated shoots inhibited the increase of proton density and prevented changes in membrane lipid composition in lateral buds. These results suggest that change in water movement alters membrane lipid composition and then induces lateral bud growth. IAA, presumably produced by the terminal bud, restricts the movement of water to lateral buds and inhibits their growth in apple.
Magnetic resonance imaging estimates unreasonably high T2 times when creating T2 images in woody plants when tissues contain a limited amount of water. We developed a system to correct such images. Tissue distribution of proton density and states of water were determined by creating images of proton density and T2 relaxation times in summerdormant (paradormant) apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) buds. These images reveal that the proton density and water states obviously are not distributed uniformly in the bud and stem; but, the distribution of water depends greatly on the tissue type (bark, xylem, or meristem of the stem), and there are differences in the states of water even within the same tissue. At low proton density T2, calculated relaxation times were unreasonably high in tissues, with the exception of meristem of the shoot. In buds that were induced to grow and in which proton density was higher, T2 times appeared as expected. Variance of T2 times in tissues containing little water was 50 times higher than in those with a higher water content. Data with such high variance were excluded from the images; thus, the image was “corrected.” Corrected images of T2 times fit the distribution of water indicated by the proton density images well.
The effect of Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on apical dominance in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) buds was examined by studying changes In proton density (free water) and membrane lipid composition in lateral buds. Decapitation induced budbreak and enhanced lateral bud growth. IAA replaced apical control of lateral bud paradormancy. Maximal inhibition was obtained when IAA was applied immediately after the apical bud was removed. Delaying this application weakens the effect of IAA. An increase in proton density in lateral buds was observable 2 days after decapitation, whereas the change in membrane lipid composition occurred 4 days later. Decapitating the terminal bud induced an increase in membrane galacto- and phospholipids. and the ratio of unsaturated to corresponding saturated fatty acids. Decapitation also induced a decrease in the ratio of free sterols to phospholipids in lateral buds. Application of IAA to the terminal end of decapitated shoots inhibited the increase of proton density and prevented changes in the membrane lipid composition of lateral buds.
Dormant and chilled highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) flower buds were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). T2 relaxation times of water molecules were too short to create images from flowers within buds that were dormant and had received no chilling, but they were sufficiently long to create images from buds that had their chilling requirement satisfied. To explain the change in relaxation times, we concluded that water is present in a motionally restricted form in flowers of dormant blueberry buds and in a freer form in flowers of buds after the chilling requirement has been satisfied. T2 values for chilled blueberry buds indicated that one population of water molecules with a detectable T2 time was present in flowers of chilled buds with a relaxation time of ≈8 to 15 ms.
Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine water states in paradormant apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) buds and during early events when buds resumed growth. Proton density and states of water were determined by creating image maps of proton density and relaxation times (T2). Summer-dormant (paradormant) buds had T2 relaxation times up to 30 ms. This water in bud tissues is considered relatively free compared to water that had T2 relaxation times of <1 ms in other parts of the stem and bark. Buds were forced to grow either by pruning off the terminal bud or by starting the bud with thidiazuron (TDZ). Both treatments gave essentially the same results. After treatment, buds started to grow immediately and water moved into the stem and into the bud. As there was more free water in the bud, T2 values ranged up to 50 ms. There appeared to be an inhibitory gradient down on the shoot, which was removed temporarily by excising the top bud. However, between the 2nd and 10th day after removal of the top bud this dominance was reinstated by the highest bud on the stem, which eventually formed a shoot. TDZ treatment overcame this inhibitory gradient effect. There was also a growth potential gradient coinciding with the inhibitory gradient. The growth of lower buds was much slower than that of the upper buds. The growth potential gradient was not overcome by TDZ treatments.