Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 40 items for

  • Author or Editor: Michael D. Glenn x
Clear All Modify Search

Infrared and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging methods are useful techniques to evaluate environmental effects on plant performance. With the advent of digital imaging and advances in sensor technology, infrared (IR) thermography has become more accurate and less expensive. Modern IR cameras can resolve 0.5 °C temperature differences and research-grade instruments can resolve 0.05 °C. This precision has allowed the physical processes of freezing and transpiration to be more accurately studied and modeled. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, although still an expensive technology, has also become sufficiently rugged to be useful in the field. The measurement of quantum efficiency, Fv/Fm, provides clear data on the effect of various environmental and biotic effects on the performance of photosynthesis in plants through the effect on photosystem II. Modern digital cameras with low signal-to-noise ratios can also image chlorophyll fluorescence using time lapse exposure. Peltier-cooled charge coupled device (CCD) cameras can measure the autoluminescence in stressed plants that is generated by reactive oxygen species. Advances in technology have reduced the cost and precision of imaging equipment to a point that they are more applicable tools to plant scientists.

Free access

Kaolin-based particle films have use in reducing insect, heat, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and ultraviolet radiation stress in plants resulting from the reflective nature of the particles. Particle films with a residue density of 1 to 4 g·m−2 have been evaluated in a range of crops and agricultural environments. The particle film is a general insect repellant resulting from the change in the plant’s leaf/fruit texture but also because it changes the reflected light signature of the plant causing insect avoidance for many pests. The alteration of reflected light is the result of the ability of the particle film to reflect infrared (IR), PAR, and ultraviolet radiation. Reflection of IR can reduce canopy temperature as much as 5 °C, which will reduce potential transpiration. The reduction of PAR by the film at the leaf level is compensated in varying degrees by diffusion of PAR into the interior of the canopy. Whole canopy photosynthesis can be increased by the combined particle film effects of reduced canopy temperature and increased diffusion of PAR into the interior of the canopy. In apple, reducing fruit surface temperature, PAR, and ultraviolet is an effective means of reducing sunburn damage. The use of a reflective particle film is effective in mitigating environmental stress and has significant economic benefits in agricultural crops.

Free access

This study examined the interaction between a reflective particle film and water use efficiency (WUE) response of irrigated and non-irrigated apple trees (Malus ×domestica) over a wide range of environmental conditions. The objectives were to measure isotopic discrimination (Δ13C and δ18O), specific gas exchange, and WUE response of ‘Empire’ apple treated with a reflective particle film (PF), with and without supplemental irrigation, compared with an untreated control, with and without supplemental irrigation, over a range of leaf area indices (LAI), seasonal evapotranspiration (ETo), and vapor pressure deficits (VPD) to determine the mechanisms of action affecting WUE in apple. Short-term whole canopy gas exchange studies and isotope discrimination analysis were used to test the hypothesis that WUE was modified by the use of a PF. In whole canopy gas exchange studies, carbon assimilation (A) and transpiration tended to increase, and WUE and canopy conductance tended to decrease, with VPD within each LAI class from 2 to 6. For VPD > 1 kPa, the PF irrigated treatment consistently had the greatest WUE and other treatments were intermediate for LAI of 2 to 4. The PF irrigated and non-irrigated treatments had greater WUE than the control irrigated and non-irrigated treatments for VPD ≤ 2 kPa and there were no treatment effects for VPD > 2 kPa in the LAI range of 4 to 6. The PF non-irrigated was equivalent to the control non-irrigated treatment at VPD of 1 to 3 kPa, but was significantly lower at VPD of 3 to 4 kPa. PF irrigated and non-irrigated treatments had the greatest carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C), the control non-irrigated treatment had the lowest Δ13C, and the control-irrigated treatment was intermediate. Oxygen isotope enrichment (δ18O) was positively correlated with the mean growing season VPD and mean growing season evapotranspiration. Δ13C was significantly and positively correlated with δ18O. Seasonal WUE was negatively correlated with Δ13C and there was an interaction with LAI. The seasonal water use of apple is better evaluated with stable isotope discrimination integrating seasonal variation rather that the use of whole canopy gas exchange measurements that measure WUE for brief periods of time. Δ13C was an accurate measurement of apple WUE and indicated that the PF irrigated treatment had the greatest Δ13C and so the lowest WUE compared with the control non-irrigated treatment at LAI from 4 to 6. The reduced WUE of the PF irrigated treatment compared with the control non-irrigated treatment is likely due to increased g S from lower canopy temperature and increased canopy photosynthetically active radiation diffusion that drove increased A. δ18O was an indicator of seasonal water use over six growing seasons due to its high correlation with ETo. In ‘Empire’ apple, A can be increased with PF and irrigation treatments, but at the cost of decreased WUE.

Free access

Excessive vegetative growth in peach (Prunus persica) causes canopy shading that reduces fruit bud initiation in the canopy interior and increases pruning costs and time. Sod competition can reduce pruning but may also reduce yield. The objective of the present study was to measure the effects of increased sod competition [2- vs. 8-ft-wide vegetation-free areas (VFA)] on yield and quality of irrigated peach. Total pruning weight was reduced by sod competition in the first 4 of 7 cropping years. Subsequent years indicated no effect on vegetative growth due to sod competition. Annual increase in trunk cross-sectional area was reduced by sod competition in the first year of cropping and unaffected in subsequent years. Canopy development was reduced by sod competition in the first 2 years of cropping, which increased photosynthetically active radiation transmission through the canopy and increased fruit red color in the first year. The width of the VFA did not alter the relationship between total fruit number and total yield in any year; however, the total number of fruit per tree was reduced in all years and total yield was reduced in 6 of 7 years. Results suggest that dormant season pruning was removing a higher percentage of the crop bearing wood from the 2-ft VFA compared with the 8-ft VFA treatment, resulting in reduced yield per unit of dormant pruning. This indicates that pruning practices must be modified to leave more bearing wood in mature trees to maintain yield potential when sod competition is used to control vegetative growth.

Full access

This study examines the effect of multiple spray applications of Apogee on shoot growth and whole-canopy photosynthesis (WCPn) rate in young, bearing apple trees. Apogee increased fruit numbers and reduced shoot growth and inconsistently reduced leaf area but the reduction in photosynthetic area did not result in reduced WCPn or a detrimental effect on the fruit number:fruit size relationship. Since WCPn was not affected when leaf area was reduced by Apogee treatment, it suggests a greater photosynthetic efficiency of leaves on Apogee treated trees due to reduced shading. The use of Apogee for canopy management may produce a side-effect of increasing fruit set, which may be managed through a crop thinning program.

Free access

Competitive effects of different grass species were evaluated on growth, yield, leaf N, and leaf water potential of 8-year-old peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] trees and on weed abundance. Two cultivars (`Loring' on Lovell rootstock and `Redhaven' on Halford rootstock) of peach trees were planted in separate orchards in 1987. Nine orchard floor treatments were installed beneath the peach trees in 1995: Festuca arundinacea Schreber (tall fescue); Lolium perenne L., var. Manhattan II (perennial ryegrass); Lolium perenne L., var. Linn; Agrostis gigantea Roth (red top); Dactylis glomerata L. (orchardgrass); Phleum pratense L. (timothy); Bromus carinatus Hook. and Arn. (brome); weedy control; and herbicide weed control (simazine, glyphosate). In general, grasses reduced vegetative growth and yield in both cultivars. Orchardgrass was one of the most competitive species and reduced vertical water sprout length by 15% to 27% and lateral shoot length on fruit-bearing branches by 19% to 30% compared with herbicide treatments. Orchardgrass reduced yield by 37% and 24% in `Loring' and `Redhaven', respectively. All grasses were not equally competitive; `Linn' perennial ryegrass did not significantly reduce growth or yield in `Redhaven'. Control treatments with weeds also did not differ from herbicide treatments in peach tree growth and yield. Grass and weed ground covers consistently reduced peach tree leaf N by at least 10%, compared to herbicide treatment, possibly due to reduced root growth. `Redhaven' root density in the top 10 cm of soil was ≈12 cm·cm-3 in herbicide strips vs. 1 cm·cm-3 in weedy or ground-covered strips. Peach leaf water potential was not affected by grass and weeds. Weed weights were significantly reduced by all grasses compared with weedy control. The results indicate that peach cultivars respond differently to grass competition, but the relative competitiveness of each grass species was similar for both cultivars. Grass competition reduced growth, yield, and pruning weights of mature peach trees, but the reduction in vegetative growth did not significantly reduce pruning time per tree. Grasses that are less inhibitory to peach yield may be useful for weed management in orchards.

Free access

The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of a reflective, aluminized plastic film (APF), a reflective, particle-based film applied to the tree (PFT), a reflective, particle film applied to the west side of the tree (PFW), or a particle-based reflective film applied to the grass between tree rows (RPF) on ‘Empire’ apple [Malus domestica (Borkh.)] color and fruit weight in a multiyear study. The APF treatment consistently increased red color and was the only treatment to increase fruit red color from the lower portion of the west side of the tree. The PFT, PFW, and RPF treatments inconsistently improved apple red color. The APF treatment reflected ≈6 times the amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) as the RPF and reflected different red/far-red light ratios (R/FR). In all years, average fruit weight was increased by the RPF, PFT, and PFW treatments compared with the untreated control and APF treatment. The mechanism responsible for the increased fruit weight may be the altered light quality, not quantity, reflected from the RPF treatments. The reflected light has enhanced far-red radiation, which may have beneficial effects on both fruit color and fruit weight. The effect of enhanced far-red radiation on increased fruit weight may be a phytochrome-mediated process affecting dry matter partitioning.

Free access

We investigated how foliar application of kaolin particle film influenced diurnal leaf gas exchange, leaf water potential, yield, and berry maturity of a red (‘Merlot’) and white (‘Viognier’) wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar under differing levels of water stress over two growing seasons (2005 and 2006) in the warm, semiarid climate of southwestern Idaho. Net diurnal stomatal conductance (g S) was increased by particle film and the effect varied according to vine water status. Particle film delayed the onset of diurnal decline in g S under mild water stress (leaf water potential ≈ –1.2 MPa) but had no influence on leaf gas exchange when vines were under greater water stress (leaf water potential ≈ –1.4 MPa). Correlation between soluble solids concentration and titratable acidity (‘Viognier’) and between berry fresh weight and yield (‘Merlot’) was higher with than without particle film, suggesting that particle film may attenuate the influence of other factors affecting expression of these traits. Particle film was associated with an increase in berry weight in ‘Merlot’ and with an increase in berry soluble solids concentration in ‘Viognier’, suggesting that the film may increase vine-carrying capacity. Midday leaf water potential throughout the growing season was not influenced by particle film. Fruit surface browning was observed on deficit-irrigated, particle film-treated vines on exposed clusters on the west side of the canopy, indicating that the film did not eliminate development of heat stress symptoms on fruit under the most extreme environmental conditions evaluated in this study.

Free access

Plant ash content has been highly correlated with plant water use efficiency (WUE) and Δ13C (Δ) in field crops and grassland species and proposed as a selection criteria for WUE. δ18O (δ) has also been correlated with transpiration in herbaceous plants. The objectives of the study were to 1) evaluate the relationship of shoot ash (ASH) with Δ and δ in ‘Empire’ apple over a 3-year period; 2) determine if yearly variation significantly affected the relationship of ASH with Δ and δ; and 3) evaluate the value of the relationship between ASH content with Δ and δ for a population of Malus sieversii. ‘Empire’ leaf area index (LAI) was negatively correlated with ASH content and positively correlated with Δ. Δ was negatively correlated with ‘Empire’ ASH. There were no yearly effects at a site. Within the Malus sieversii accessions, there was a grouping based on ASH that could be identified and this outlier group also had the lowest δ of the accessions. There were no correlations of leaf area, number, length, width, or stomata number with δ, Δ, or ASH for the Malus sieversii accessions. Rather than a substitute for Δ measurement in assessing WUE, ash content analysis adds an additional dimension to understanding the dynamics of WUE in apple. This work has identified a unique population of Malus meriting further study.

Free access