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  • Author or Editor: Melvin N. Westwood x
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Abstract

Fruit quality of ‘Starkspur Golden Delicious’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) on 6 rootstocks [Seedling, Mailing (M) 1, M ailing Merton (MM) 106, M 7, OAR 1, M 26] grown in a high density orchard at 2 levels each of K and N was studied at 3 harvest dates and after 6 months of 0°C storage from 1980 to 1982. Fruit on OAR 1 rootstock had greater soluble solids, more yellow color at harvest and after storage and were relatively firmer at harvest, but were smaller than those from other rootstocks. Fruit on M 7 had lower soluble solids than most of the other rootstocks at harvest time. Fruit from MM 106 had a lower incidence of breakdown in storage than most others. Crop load influenced both harvest and storage quality. Fruit on M 26, which had a light crop in 1981, were larger, yellower, and had higher soluble solids, and also had more storage breakdown (about 20%) and bitterpit (about 12%) than other rootstocks. Rootstocks or fertilizers did not affect fruit respiration. Little effect of K fertilizer was found on any quality indices, whereas high N treatments produced greener fruit than did low N.

Open Access

Abstract

Internal ethylene of attached fruit of ‘Starkspur Golden Delicious’ apple as influenced by 6 rootstocks: Seedling, Mailing (M1) 1, Mailing Merton 106 (MM 106), M 7, OAR 1, M 26, at 2 levels each of soil-applied K and N were measured during maturation for 2 years (1980 and 1981). Ethylene evolution of detached fruit as a result of these treatments also was measured after 2.5 months of storage at 0°C in 1981. Internal ethylene in the attached fruit was less than 0.1 μl·liter-1 in late September and early October and began to rise between 9 Oct. and 15 Oct. Internal ethylene increased in all treatments, almost at the same time in 1980. In 1981, ethylene in the fruit on OAR 1 began to increase 9 days later than in the other rootstocks. However, levels of ethylene in the fruit were relatively low on OAR 1 and high on M 26 as compared to those on other rootstocks in late October 1980 and 1981 and during poststorage 1981 samplings. Ethylene levels in fruit from other rootstocks were similar. Because of these variable effects of rootstocks, and the effects of a low field temperature in reducing internal ethylene levels, field sampling of internal ethylene levels was an unreliable indicator of the proper harvest time, as measured by other maturity indices. No consistent influence of K or N applications was found in the internal ethylene of the attached fruit; however, high N applications increased ethylene evolution after storage.

Open Access

`Napoleon' grafted onto Colt, F/12-1, and MxM60 rootstock were planted into three types of tree holes: augered; backhoed, and backhoed plus fumigation. The auger treatment resulted in lower yields, smaller trunk cross-sectional area (TSCA), and smaller canopy volume when compared to backhoed holes. Fumigation had no significant effect. Trees on Colt rootstock were more precocious, had a smaller TCSA and canopy volume, greater cumulative yield efficiency, and, in 1987, the smallest fruit weight. The yield efficiency of Colt was the highest until 1988, when it was surpassed by MxM60, but was still similar to F/12-l. Yields were highest on trees of MxM60 in 1987 and 1988.

Free access