The influence of storage temperature and length of time in storage on anthocyanin tuber concentration were investigated in seven potato genotypes. These genotypes were cultivars `All Blue' and `Yukon Gold' plus five selections that were various skin/flesh color types of red/red, purple/purple, white/yellow, and two red/yellow types. The red, blue, and purple colors are the result of various anthocyanin compounds. Tubers of the seven genotypes were stored at 4.4 or 10 °C for 0, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, or 24 weeks. Both fresh and freeze-dried samples of the tubers were evaluated for each temperature and time treatment combination. Extractable anthocyanins were found in only the three pigmented genotypes red/red, purple/purple, and `All Blue'. Anthocyanin concentrations were estimated spectrophotometrically with a Molecular Devices Spectramax 384, based upon extinction coefficients reported in the literature for purple and red pigmented potatoes. Anthocyanin concentration increased in storage as time in storage increased for both fresh and freeze-dried samples. Tubers stored at the cooler temperature (4.4 °C) had higher levels of anthocyanin than those tubers stored at the higher temperature (10 °C). Increased levels of anthocyanins in cold-stored tubers may be linked to the conversion of starch to sugar (so called cold sweetening) known to occur at cold storage temperatures. Pigment extraction was more efficient from freeze-dried tuber samples compared to fresh tuber samples. There was, however, a similar increasing trend in both freeze-dried and fresh tuber sources with storage duration.
Mekhled M. Alenazi, Harrison G. Hughes, Cecil Stushnoff and David G. Holm
Abdullah Ibrahim, Hesham Abdel-Razzak, Mahmoud Wahb-Allah, Mekhled Alenazi, Abdullah Alsadon and Yaser Hassan Dewir
The present study reports on the effect of humic and salicylic acids on the growth, yield, and fruit quality of three red sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivars: Barbero, Ferrari, and Imperio. The plants were grown in a greenhouse and the leaves were treated with humic or salicylic acids at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 g·L−1 at 20, 40, and 60 days after transplanting. Foliar application of humic or salicylic acids significantly increased vegetative growth, fruit yield, and quality of the three cultivars as compared with the control plants. However, salicylic acid treatment proved more effective than humic acid treatment. Red sweet pepper plants of all three cultivars sprayed with 1.5 g·L−1 salicylic acid showed the greatest vegetative growth; fruit yield components, such as fruit number, diameter, and fresh and dry weights; and fruit quality traits, such as vitamin C content, total soluble solid content, titratable acidity, and total sugar content, than the plants in all other treatments. There were significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) among cultivars in response to humic and salicylic acid foliar application; ‘Ferrari’ showed significantly higher yield and productivity than ‘Barbero’ or ‘Imperio’. ‘Ferrari’ plants sprayed with 1.5 g·L−1 salicylic acid showed the highest fruit weight (202.41 g) and flesh thickness (68 mm), both of which are preferred by consumers, and therefore, have increased market value. This treatment also increased total yield by 27.7% (16.03 t·ha−1), 15.9% (12.38 t·ha−1), and 17.9% (11.88 t·ha−1) in ‘Barbero’, ‘Ferrari’, and ‘Imperio’, respectively. Therefore, salicylic acid foliar application is recommended for enhancing fruit yield and quality of greenhouse-grown red sweet pepper.