Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for

  • Author or Editor: Mayra A. Toro-Herrera x
Clear All Modify Search

A large group of horticulture species are propagated vegetatively through shoot-tip cuttings harvested from stock plants and planted to form adventitious roots. Adventitious rooting leads to establishing a carbohydrate sink in the region of root regeneration that is highly dependent on energy and carbon skeletons. We hypothesized that the timing of exogenous applications of cytokinin (CK) and boron (B)–molybdenum (Mo)-based products during adventitious root development can affect the flow of sugars from leaves to sinks, carbon allocation to the adventitious roots, and the quality of rooted cuttings. During this project, we aimed to determine if the application time of a CK/B-Mo-based product during the adventitious root development of unrooted cuttings would impact the source-to-sink relationship and, hence, affect plug growth and quality. A sink-strengthening commercial product based on cytokinin, B, and Mo was applied at four plug development stages plus a negative control as follows: T1, plants without product (control); T2, sticking stage (starting 24 hours after the sticking); T3, callus formation stage; T4, root development stage; and T5, toning stage. The root and shoot lengths and dry matter, number of leaves, leaf chlorophyll content, root-to-shoot ratio (based on dry matter), and nonstructural carbohydrate contents were measured. The timing of the application of the product impacted the root development, quality of the cuttings, and nonstructural carbohydrate content. Product application during the adventitious root dedifferentiation and induction phases (T2) resulted in the shortest root and shoot lengths, lowest dry matter accumulation, lowest nonstructural carbohydrate contents, and some phytotoxicity. Application during the initiation phase (T3) resulted in greater root length, total dry matter, and total soluble sugar contents compared with the control. Application during the expression phase (T4) resulted in the largest root length and mass and the highest sucrose contents. Applying the product when the roots had grown and reached all the edges of the growing media (T5) did not have any benefits compared with the control. This study provides new insights into the application timing of exogenous CKs, B, and Mo to generate a well-toned rooted coleus cutting and potential explanations in relation to nonstructural carbohydrate metabolism.

Open Access

Reusing irrigation water has technical, environmental, and financial benefits. However, risks are also associated with the accumulation of agrochemicals, in addition to ions, plant and food safety pathogens, and biofilm organisms. In this project, we measured the concentration of paclobutrazol (a persistent and widely used plant growth regulator) in recirculated water in greenhouses producing ornamental plants in containers. Solutions were collected from catchment tanks at nine commercial greenhouses across seven states in the United States in Spring and Fall 2014. Paclobutrazol was detected in all samples, with differences observed by season, greenhouse operation, paclobutrazol application method, and irrigation method. Across operations, the residual concentration of paclobutrazol was higher in spring for most greenhouses (ranging from 0 to 1100 µg·L−1) compared with the fall (ranging from 0 to 8 µg·L−1). The spray-drench application method resulted in the highest residual concentrations (up to 35 µg·L−1), followed by substrate drench (up to 26 µg·L−1) and foliage spray (concentrations under 3 µg·L−1). Residual concentrations were higher with overhead irrigation (up to 35 µg·L−1) compared with subirrigation systems (up to 15 µg·L−1). Our results indicate that paclobutrazol is likely to be a growth retardant risk in greenhouse operations recirculating water. A clear understanding of the risks associated with recirculated water intends to support the development and implementation of risk management strategies to ensure and promote safe use of recirculated water in greenhouses. Overall, the most effective preventative strategy is to ensure the use of the minimum amount of the a.i. necessary per unit of space and time.

Open Access