The use of high tunnels is a technology that can be implemented just about anywhere for a modest cost, and can be used to bring crops on earlier or extend them later in the season. Raspberries are a high value crop that, in season, sell for more than $3.00/lb. In the middle of winter, raspberries can sell for more than $10.00/lb. Our goal was to produce raspberries in October and November, after the field season ends from frost and rain, and when the selling price of raspberries doubles. Our project examined primocane-fruiting varieties and methods of managing plants to delay their production beyond the normal late August-September season. The first part of the study was to monitor the growth and productivity of several late varieties that typically fruit too late for the New York climate. One selection (NY01.64) and one cultivar (Josephine) appeared very promising for high tunnel production. The second set of treatments manipulated `Heritage' so that it fruits later than the normal September season. The five treatments were an unmanipulated control, applying straw over plots in late February at the rate of 6 tons/acre after a period of cold weather, mowing canes to the ground in early June shortly after they emerge, pinching primocanes (removing the top 4–6 inches) when they reach a height of about 2½ ft, and pinching when canes were 3½ ft tall. Each of these 4 treatments delayed flowering and shifted production to later in the season. The late pinching treatment appeared to provide the best yield curve under the high tunnel.
Hans Spalholz, Mary Jo Kelly, and Marvin Pritts
Marvin P. Pritts and Mary Jo Kelly
Various levels of weed competition were implemented in a second-year well-established strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa `Jewel') planting by cultivating and hand weed removal for defined periods of time over 3 years. The impact of weeds on subsequent productivity was then determined. Sixteen treatments were established where weeds were allowed to grow for defined periods (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 months) throughout the growing season. Treatments were maintained in the plots for 3 consecutive years. Spring weed biomass in 1997 had no impact on yield that same year. Weed biomass in 1997 was negatively associated with yield in 1998, although the trend was nonsignificant. However, several individual contrasts were significant. For example, the weed-free control treatment had the highest average yield, while season-long weed competition reduced yield by 14%. The inverse relationship between weed biomass and fruit yield became significant in 1999. For every 100 g·m-2 increase in weed biomass in 1998, fruit yield was reduced by 6% in 1999. Season-long uncontrolled weed growth reduced productivity by 51%. However, several plots with a limited amount of weed competition had higher yields than the continuously weeded control. These data indicate that yields from a well-established strawberry planting may not be vulnerable to a limited amount of weed competition for at least 2 years. Furthermore, data suggest that hand weeding and cultivation on a monthly basis for multiple years may be damaging as well. Growers should direct a majority of their efforts and resources toward controlling weeds in the planting year. Once the planting is well-established, growers may limit the number of times they hand weed to two or three per season.
Marvin P. Pritts and Mary Jo Kelly
Competition from weeds and an interplanted sudangrass [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moensch, formerly S. sudanense (Piper) Stapf.] cover crop was allowed to occur in newly-planted strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) for varying lengths of time, and at different times during the growing season. Newly planted strawberries were most susceptible to weed and cover crop competition during the first 2 months after planting, as both runnering (stolon formation) and subsequent yield were impacted. In 1994-95, 1 month of weed competition in June reduced yield by 20%, whereas 2 months of weed competition reduced yield by 65%. However, 1 month of uncontrolled weed growth later in the growing season had little to no impact on yield, although weed biomass was much less then. Herbicide (napropamide) use alone was insufficient to prevent weed competition and yield reduction. In our study, yield was reduced 0.67 t·ha-1 or 5.5% for each 100 g·m-2 of weed biomass. The data suggest that it is critical for growers to minimize weed competition early in the planting year when weed growth is greatest. Since an interplanted sudangrass cover crop displaced a portion of the weeds, it could be seeded later in the year to provide some weed suppression without a negative impact on yield. Chemical names used: N, N, Diethyl-2-(1-naphthalenyloxy)-propionamide (napropamide); N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate).
Marvin Pritts, Mary Jo Kelly, and Greg English-Loeb
The strawberry bud weevil (Anthonomus signatus Say; clipper) is considered to be a serious early-season pest in perennial matted row strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne) plantings in North America. Adult females damage flower buds in early spring by depositing an egg in the bud, then clipping the bud from the pedicel. Action thresholds are low (two clipped buds/meter of row) because pest managers and growers have assumed that one clipped flower bud results in the loss of one average-sized fruit. Fields with a history of clipper damage are often treated with insecticides during the first period of warm weather that coincides with inflorescence development, without scouting for clipped buds or evaluating damage. We examined 12 strawberry cultivars and found that most can compensate for a significant amount of flower bud loss, provided that the loss occurs early in the development of the inflorescence. A new threshold is proposed in which the potential loss of fruit per inflorescence is considered, along with the total number of severely damaged inflorescences. We believe that in most circumstances and with most cultivars, clipper injury will remain below the damage threshold.
Kevin Maloney, Marvin Pritts, Wayne Wilcox, and Mary Jo Kelly
Various soil amendments and cultural practices were examined in both a phytophthora-infested (Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi) (+PFR) and uninfested field (–PFR) planted to `Heritage' red raspberries. Although plants in the +PFR field did not exhibit typical disease symptoms due to unseasonably dry weather, their growth was less than those in the –PFR field. After 2 years, plants in the +PFR site had the highest yields in plots treated with phosphorous acid or amended with gypsum, whereas compost-amended plots had the lowest yields in both +PFR and –PFR sites. A second field study confirmed the positive effect of gypsum on growth and yield of raspberries in an infested site. In a third study, `Titan' raspberries grown under greenhouse conditions in pots containing unamended soil from the infested site, then flooded, exhibited severe disease symptoms; however, pasteurization of the soil, treatment with phosphorous acid and metalaxyl fungicide, or gypsum amendment mostly prevented symptoms from developing. These three studies suggest that a preplant soil amendment containing certain readily available forms of calcium, such as found in gypsum, can help suppress phytophthora root rot and increase survival, growth and yield of raspberries in sites where the pathogen is present.
Anne M. Socci, Marvin P. Pritts, and Mary Jo Kelly
A mixed cultivar blueberry planting was treated with a concentrated sucrose solution before fruit ripening and after episodes of rain during the harvest season. Fruit losses due to birds were monitored throughout the season in this planting and in the same cultivar in a separate nontreated planting ≈200 m (650 ft.) away. Fruit loss to birds was ≈50% greater in the nontreated planting over the first 3 weeks of harvest. In addition, bird activity was monitored between 0600 and 0700 hr on two occasions in each planting during the early harvest season. Bird activity was many times higher in the nontreated planting. These observations suggest that sucrose should be tested more widely for potential activity on bird feeding behavior.
Marvin Pritts, Eric Hanson, Joseph Fiola, and Mary Jo Kelly
Studies were conducted over eight location-years to evaluate the effects of rowcover material, time of application, and time of removal on `Heritage' red raspberry cane growth, flowering, and fruiting. We anticipated that rowcovers would accelerate fruit maturity so that more of the crop could be harvested before the onset of cold temperatures in autumn. In seven of the eight experiments, rowcovers either increased yields or accelerated harvest. With a March application, harvest began 3 weeks earlier, and August yields of covered plants were 42 times higher than those of noncovered plants. Responses were observed with spunbonded polypropylene and polyester covers, but not with polyethylene covers. Rowcovers placed over the row before primocane emergence and removed when canes were ≈50 cm tall resulted in the greatest plant response. The use of polyester or polypropylene rowcovers with primocane-fruiting raspberries appears to be economically feasible in most years in northern climates.
Mary Jo Kelly, Marvin P. Pritts, and Robin R. Bellinder
Three new cultivation tools were compared with a traditional between-row cultivator, an herbicide control, and the conventional herbicide-plus-cultivator weed management program used in a first-year strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) planting. The new implements were (1) a Rabe Werk flex-tine harrow, (2) a Buddingh finger weeder, and (3) a Bärtschi brush hoe. The traditional implement was a double-headed multivator. The flex-tine harrow performed poorly. Its use appeared to stimulate germination of weed seeds as end-of-season weed biomass was high, and yield the following year was low. It was also the most labor-intensive treatment to maintain. The finger weeder reduced in-row weed growth dramatically, and productivity of this treatment was high, but its use required additional between-row cultivation with another implement. The brush hoe, while classified as a between-row weeder, reduced in-row weed growth as well, and yields for brushed plots were also high. Cultivation with a multivator resulted in good weed control between rows and high yields, but hand-weeding requirements within the row were high. Weed growth and yields were unacceptable when the herbicide was used alone, but an early-season pre-emergent herbicide application, followed by a single late-season hand weeding and cultivation, resulted in a dramatic reduction in weeds at the end of the year and a notable increase in yield the following year. The conventional herbicide-plus-cultivation weed-management program, used in the establishment year by growers who plant in the perennial matted-row system, continues to be a good choice if labor is both plentiful and affordable; however, the finger weeder and brush hoe are viable alternatives for situations in which labor is scarce. Organic growers, and growers who plant in nontraditional annual systems, may benefit from their use as well.
Marvin P. Pritts, Robert W. Langhans, Thomas H. Whitlow, Mary Jo Kelly, and Aimee Roberts
Floricane-fruiting (summer-bearing) raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) were grown outdoors in pots in upstate New York until mid-December when the chilling requirement was fulfilled. They were moved into a greenhouse and placed at a density that is three times higher than field planting. Bumble bees (Bombus impatiens Cresson) were introduced at flowering for pollination. Fruiting occurred from mid-February through mid-April, a time when the retail price for raspberries is between $3.00 and $6.00 for a half pint (180 g). Fruit quality was high, and individual 2-year-old plants averaged 11 half pints (2 kg) of marketable fruit. These yields and retail prices are equivalent to 19,000 lb and $142,000 per acre (21 t, $350,000 per ha). Raspberry production during winter allows growers to dramatically extend the harvest season and to produce a high-value crop at a time when greenhouses often are empty.