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Mary C. Halbrooks

DACUM (develop a curriculum) was implemented at Kent State University (KSU) to develop and revise curricular content of an associate degree program in horticulture technology. Initially, at KSU-Salem in 1990, a committee followed a typical DACUM process to develop a skills profile for the horticulture technology worker. The skills profile consisted of terminal and intermediate learning objectives that served as the content of basic data sheets for thirteen new courses in horticulture technology. This associate degree program was initiated at Salem in 1991 and offers three concentration areas: landscape management, turfgrass management, and arboriculture. Later, when a proposed new program offering was considered at KSU-Geauga, a modified DACUM process was implemented to develop a new skills profile that refl ected both general knowledge areas of horticultural and business practices and industry-spe- cific competency areas. Comparison of the two curricula revealed similarities between the two skills profiles. This led to the recommendation that the original curriculum also be offered at KSU-Geauga campus with two differences: 1) omit the arboricul- ture concentration, and 2) consider a new concentration in greenhouse and nursery operations in the future. The associate degree program in horticulture technology at the KSU-Geauga campus began in 1999. The DACUM process, by involving members of the horticultural industry in the curricular development process, provided several long-term benefits and a high level of cooperation between industry leaders and KSU-Geauga.

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Mary C. Halbrooks

Stan Hywet Hall and Gardens in Akron, Ohio, is a historical estate of national significance. Originally the home of the wealthy Seiberling family in the early 1900s, Stan Hywet Hall and Gardens was designed by renowned Boston landscape architect Warren Manning between 1911 and 1917. In 1915, the English Garden, one of several garden rooms on the estate, was designed by Manning as a walled, hidden garden. Thirteen years later, the garden's style was reconceived and its spatial dimensions restructured by Ellen Biddle Shipman, the foremost among women landscape architects of that time. Historic photographs document the implementation and maintenance of Shipman's design from 1928 to 1946. After 1946, the English Garden, lacking proper maintenance, was transformed into a shady retreat under towering evergreens on its perimeter. Few of the plantings from the Shipman period remained by 1989, whereas the architectural and structuring elements of the garden were still intact. The decision to restore the English Garden to Shipman's planting design provides a highly accurate representation of the garden during a particular period in its history (1928–46). Architectural rehabilitation of the garden's walls, walks, pathways, and pools was followed by an exacting restoration of the plantings according to Shipman's plans. In 1991, restoration of the English Garden was completed and it was opened to the public in 1992. Objectives of this paper are to 1) illustrate and illuminate contemporary historic landscape preservation practice and theory as applied to the English Garden at Stan Hywet Hall and Gardens and 2) document the horticultural methods associated with this historic garden restoration.

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Mary C. Halbrooks and Joseph P. Albano

A specific physiological disorder of the recently matured leaves of Tagetes erecta has been demonstrated to be associated with high levels of iron and manganese in affected tissues. In previous work by the authors, the disorder was inducible and increased in severity with increasing levels of iron DTPA supplied to plants grown in peat-based media, but was much less severe when iron DTPA treatments were applied to plants grown hydroponically. At low concentrations of iron DTPA in solution, the occurrence of the disorder was more closely correlated with increased levels of manganese in leaf tissue than iron, Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of iron chelate (DTPA) on occurrence of the disorder and the availability of iron and manganese in the media in the absence of added manganese. Iron DTPA (1, 5, 15, and 20 ppm) was supplied to two cultivars of Tagetes erecta, `Voyager' and `First Lady', grown in a commercial peat-based media product under controlled environmental conditions. Concentrations of iron and manganese in leachate samples taken weekly, and in symptom and non-symptom tissue at harvest, and the progression of the symptoms in leaf tissue over time. will be discussed.

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Jeff S. Kuehny and Mary C. Halbrooks

Research defining actual changes in weight gain of roots and shoots during growth episodes of woody ornamentals is limited. The objective of this study was to develop a better understanding of the patterns of root and shoot growth, nitrogen uptake, and changes in carbohydrate and protein content of Ligustrum japonicum, an episodic species. Shoot elongation and lateral root formation were synchronous. The greatest increase in shoot percent of whole plant fresh weight occurred after shoot elongation however, and the greatest increase in root percent of whole plant fresh weight occurred during shoot elongation. Nitrate uptake was highest during shoot elongation and lateral root formation. Carbohydrate and protein content also varied with each episode of growth.

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Gary R. Bachman and Mary C. Halbrooks

The role of Fe DTPA (Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) in the occurrence of a specific physiological disorder affecting the leaves of cutting geranium was investigated. Industry reports indicate that affected leaves have excessively high concentrations of Fe and sometimes Mn. Symptoms of the disorder first affect maturing leaves, and may in severe cases affect immature leaves. Symptoms progress from marginal/interveinal chlorosis and necrosis, to affect whole leaf necrosis. Rooted cuttings were grown in a soil-less peat based media, with Fe DTPA concentrations of 1, 5, 15, and 20 ppm. Iron and manganese leaf concentrations were significantly higher in symptom than in non-symptom tissue and increased as Fe DTPA treatment level increased. As Fe DTPA treatment level increased there was a significant increase in dry weight of symptom tissue and a decrease in non-symptom tissue dry weight. Plants grown in media amended with dolomite (pH> 5.8) had similar degrees of symptom occurrence compared to plants grown in unamended media (pH ≈ 5.4).

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Jeff S. Kuehny and Mary C. Halbrooks

Episodic growth is a term used to define alternate episodes of root and shoot growth. Fresh weight gain of Ligustrum japonicum roots and shoots was continuous through each episode of shoot elongation. Root:shoot ratio, however varied over time and oscillated with each episode of shoot elongation. During shoot elongation the percent fresh weight (of whole plant weight) allocated to the shoot decreased while the percent allocated to roots increased. During cessation of shoot elongation the percent fresh weight allocated to the shoot increased; while percent allocated to roots decreased. Formation of lateral roots was synchronous with shoot elongation.

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Joseph P. Albano, William B. Miller, and Mary C. Halbrooks

A specific physiological disorder, bronze speckle (J.P.A.'s nomenclature), was consistently induced in `First Lady' and `Voyager' marigold with Fe-DTPA concentrations greater than 0.018 mm Fe-DTPA (1 ppm) applied to a soilless medium. The disorder was characterized by specific symptomology distinguished visually by speckled patterns of chlorosis and necrosis, and downward curling and cupping of leaves. The percentage of total leaf dry weight affected with symptoms generally increased with increasing Fe-DTPA treatments. Symptomatic leaf tissue had a greater Fe concentration than corresponding asymptomatic leaf tissue. Leaf Mn concentrations in symptomatic and asymptomatic tissue were similar. In `First Lady', older leaf tissue accumulated more total Fe and was associated with more severe symptoms than younger tissue. Media leachate Fe concentrations increased over 6 weeks and were larger at greater Fe-DTPA treatments. Adjustment of nutrient solution pH to 4.0, 5.25, or 6.5 did not alter media pH, nor did it prevent disorder symptoms. Application of Fe-DTPA containing nutrient solution to a soilless medium resulted in leachate Fe levels 3 times greater than for FeSO4 treatments. Chemical names used: ferric diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, monosodium salt (Fe-DTPA).