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  • Author or Editor: Maru K. Kering x
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The grape cultivars Vidal blanc, a French-American hybrid, and Norton, primarily Vitis aestivalis, were transplanted to 19-L pots with soil amended to pH 4.5, 5.9, 7.2, and 8.5. The soil was a mixture of coarse sand and a silty clay loam in the proportion 2 to 1. The experiment was a randomized complete block with two treatments (cultivar, soil pH) and six replications. The objectives of the experiment were to determine vegetative growth and nutrient content of the two cultivars at varying soil pH, and the soil pH within those tested that optimized growth. Vidal blanc was superior to Norton in all growth measurements after 94 days. At pH 7.2 and 8.5, significant reductions in shoot length; leaf area; and leaf, shoot and root dry weights occurred for Norton but not for Vidal blanc. Trends toward lower P, Mg, Fe, and MN and higher B occurred at pH 8.5. Foliar symptoms of Mg and Fe deficiency were noticed for Norton at this elevated pH but not for Vidal blanc. The pH range 5.9 to 7.2 for Norton and 7.2 to 8.5 for Vidal blanc appeared to optimize growth for these two cultivars.

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Rapid multiplication of turmeric (Curcuma longa) by micropropagation is needed to produce a continuous source of uniformly sized, high-quality, and disease-free plantlets. Three in vitro experiments were conducted to optimize the medium by evaluating nine media and a full factorial combination (matrix) of two plant growth regulators for direct organogenesis of ‘Hawaiian Red’ turmeric. Two experiments evaluated the media, and the third studied the plant growth regulator matrix. As a result, Driver and Kuniyuki walnut (DKW), Murashige and Skoog (MS), and broadleaf tree basal (BLT) media performed better than woody plant media [Lloyd & McCown woody plant basal medium (L&M), and McCown’s woody plant basal salt mixture (McCown)] for shoot and root formation. The multiplication rate was 18 plants per explant in DKW with 1 mg⋅L−1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.1 mg⋅L−1 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). After transferring the plants to an ex vitro environment, the survival rate was 97%, and 30% higher than previously reported. DKW produced the highest number of plantlets (with shoots and roots), and BLT produced fewer plants with higher biomass. In the MS media, higher BAP to NAA ratio (2.5 to 0.1 mg⋅L−1) produced the most significant number of shoots; however, the lowest concentration of BAP and NAA (0.1 mg⋅L−1 of both) produced the highest number of rooted plantlets. There are two recommendations for tissue culture of ‘Hawaiian Red’ turmeric. To produce the highest number of plantlets, one should use the higher BAP to NAA ratio (2.5 mg⋅L−1 BAP and 0.1 mg⋅L−1 NAA) for shoot proliferation and then transfer the explants to the root initiation media. However, to reduce the number of subcultures, the explants can be grown in the lowest concentration of both BAP and NAA (0.1 mg⋅L−1) to induce both shoot and root. Although, the number of plantlets (with roots and shoots) will decrease in this method, there is no need for subsequent subcultures and changing of the plant growth regulator combinations.

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