Martha A. Mutschler
Sinchieh Liu and Martha A. Mutschler
The transfer of multigenic traits into tomato has been slow due to interspecific barriers (hybrid breakdown) found in the F2 of the Lycopersicon esculentum × L. pennellii cross (esc × pen), including blocks in normal reproductive development and nonfecundity. In a typical (esc × pen) F2 population, failure to flower and premeiotic blocks in pollen development occurred in 2% and 11% of the population, respectively. The remaining plants showed a mean of 37% stainable pollen. Twenty three percent of the F2 plants set seed, with an average of 4.5 seeds/fruit. An average of 33% of the stainable pollen from the 7 F2 plants with the highest stainable pollen measurements germinated in vitro, but only 4 of these 7 plants set seed. Thus, percent stainable pollen is not an adequate predictor of fecundity, and the non-fecundity in the F2Le plants must involve barriers occurring after pollen germination.
A method was developed which greatly reduces or eliminates each of the F2 barriers. The method and its efficacy on each of the aspects of hybrid breakdown will be discussed.
Min-Jea Kim and Martha A. Mutschler
Min-Jea Kim and Martha A. Mutschler
Late blight [caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary] causes severe loss of tomato [Solanum lycopersicum L. (formerly Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)] production in environments favorable to the pathogen. Researchers at the Asia Vegetable Research Development Center (AVRDC) identified resistance to late blight in an accession of S. pimpinellifolium [formerly L. pimpinellifolium (L.) Mill.] that they named accession L3708. This resistance has now been transferred to processing tomato lines, which are resistant to multiple P. infestans isolates. Lab trials, inoculated field trials in New York, and naturally infested field trials in Mexico all indicate that these processing tomato lines are fixed for late blight resistance. Segregation data obtained for resistance in the breeding populations were dependent on the pathogen isolate used for the disease screen. Segregation data do not support the hypothesis of single gene control of the full resistance trait, but instead suggest that more than one gene is involved, and that these genes interact in an epistatic manner.
Min-Jea Kim and Martha A. Mutschler
Sixteen tomato [Solanum lycopersicum L. (syn. Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)] genotypes (inbred lines or hybrids) were tested against five Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) deBary isolates to characterize race specificity of late blight resistance transferred to tomato from Solanum pimpinellifolium L. [syn. Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium (L.) Mill.] accession L3708. The effects of plant genotype, isolate, genotype × isolate, and isolate × replication interactions were highly significant (P = 0.001). Set of four sister lines fixed for late blight resistance (CU-R lines) exhibited full and equal resistance to the five pathogen isolates tested. In contrast, the heterozygous F1 hybrids, created by crossing the resistant CU-R lines with a susceptible parent, were resistant to US-11; partially resistant to US-17, NC-1, and DR4B; and susceptible to US-7. Differential responses were also observed across pathogen isolates on a set of resistant sister lines (CLN-R lines), which also were bred from L3708. The CLN-R lines were resistant to the DR4B, NC-1, and US-11 isolates, but showed significant disease-affected areas and sporangium numbers following inoculation with either US-7 or US-17. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis confirms that both CU-R and CLN-R are homozygous for the Ph-3 gene derived from L3708. Since progeny tests also confirmed that the CLN-R lines are fixed for their level of resistance, these results suggest that late blight resistance in the CU-R lines is not controlled by Ph-3 alone, and that at least one additional gene conferring late blight resistance is missing from the CLN-R lines. Results of genetic tests of the (CU-R × CLN-R) F1 and a (CU-R × CLN-R) F2 population with the pathogen isolate US-17 strongly support a model in which resistance of the CU-R lines requires genes in addition to Ph-3. The implications of this information in breeding for late blight resistance and using of the resulting resistant lines or hybrids are discussed.
Barbara E. Liedl and Martha A. Mutschler
Little is known about the mechanisms controlling interspecific barriers, unlike the well studied intraspecific barrier, self incompatibility (SI),. A unilateral crossing barrier (unilateral incongruity - UI) exists among the Lycopersicon species, in which crossing is impeded or prevented in one direction. Since both UI and SI can give unilateral differences in seed set, suggestions have been made that UI and SI are functionally related. L. pennellii LA716 is self-compatible, unlike the other accessions which are SI, but LA716 still exhibits UI with L. esculentum (esc). We observed the development of pollen tubes in self and cross pollinations of LA716, esc and SI accessions of L. pennellii (pen). Selfed pollen tubes in esc were at the ovary in 24 hours, while pen were 1/2 way down the style and in LA716 the pollen had not germinated. By 48 hours, the pollen tubes in LA716 were in the ovary and growth had halted in pen styles. Crosses with LA716 pollen on esc and pen resulted in pollen tube growth starting within 24 hours continuing to the ovary. Thus, UI is not a SI response and LA716 shows a delayed pollen germination and growth unlike the other Lycopersicon species examined.
Peter T. Hyde, Elizabeth D. Earle, and Martha A. Mutschler
Production of double haploid (DH) lines is a rapid method of obtaining completely homozygous inbred lines for numerous crops; however, practical trials testing the use of DH onion lines have been limited. DH onion lines were produced from diverse highly heterozygous material in development within the Cornell onion breeding program. These DH lines were evaluated in multiple replicated trials in onion fields in New York as lines and as parents of hybrids to assess the impact and commercial potential of DH onions. Twenty DH onion lines were compared with open-pollinated cultivars developed from the same source germplasm and with a commercial hybrid over two years. The vegetative vigor of the DH lines was comparable to that of related open-pollinated cultivars, showing minimal, if any, inbreeding depression. Two sets of hybrids were produced using the DH lines as males and two different females that are the female parents of the commercial hybrid controls. Therefore, hybrids in each set are half-sibs, and any performance differences are attributable to their DH male lines. In four replicated trials of these hybrids and controls, the experimental hybrids were either not significantly different or significantly better in measures of vegetative vigor compared with conventional half-sib hybrid controls. The vegetative vigor of DH lines, and their derived hybrids, might result from selection of plantlets without deleterious sublethal genes during gynogenesis. The shortened development time and equivalent quality of DH lines compared with the traditionally bred onion inbreds warrant their use. The increased vigor in hybrid combination could be an additional benefit for onion breeding strategies.
Susan L. Eggleston, Darlene M. Lawson, and Martha A. Mutschler
Acylsugars produced by many accessions of wild tomato (L. pennellii) mediate resistance to a number of important pests of tomato. The highly resistant L. pennellii accession LA716 accumulates high levels of acylsugars, of which 85% are in the form of acylglucoses, the rest being acylsucroses. In contrast, L. pennellii accession LA1912, which does not show the insect resistance of accession LA716, accumulates very low levels of acylsugars, of which 55% are represented by acylglucoses. The intraspecific F1 derived from crosses between the accessions LA716 and LA1912 accumulates moderate levels of acylsugars, of which, like its LA716 parent, 85% are in the form of acylglucoses. Intraspecific F2 and backcross populations derived from crosses between the accessions LA716 and LA1912 were surveyed for acylsucrose and acylglucose production. These populations segregated for the ability to produce acylsugars, levels of total acylsugars produced and amount of acylglucoses as a percentage of total acylsugars. The genetic control of these traits will be discussed.
Martha A. Mutschler, Edward D. Cobb, Barbara E. Liedl, and Joseph A. Shapiro
Acylsugar mediates the resistance of Lycopersicon pennellii LA716 to several important insect pests of cultivated tomato, including potato aphid, green peach aphid, leaf miner, fruitworm, armyworm, and silverleaf whitefly. Incorporation of acylsugar-mediated multiple pest resistance could result in a significant reduction in the use of pesticidal sprays in cultivated tomato. Development of a reliable assay for acylsugar production and confirmation of the association between the resistance and acylsugars allowed us to try to breed for the trait by selecting for acylsugar-producing plants. The breeding cycle allows us to progress by one backcross generation per year. The breeding program was faced by several challenges, including interference in gene transfer by interspecific crossing barriers, and the oligogenic nature of the acylsugar-mediated resistance trait. Despite these challenges, the breeding program has produced BC3F2 plants that produce effective levels of acylsugars, are tomato-like in vine appearance, and produce seed-bearing fruit in the field without manual pollination. The current status of the program and future plans will be discussed.
Martha A. Mutschler, David W. Wolfe, Edward D. Cobb, and Kenneth S. Yourstone
Fruit of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) hybrids heterozygous for the alc ripening mutation stored on average 60% (3.6 days) longer at 20C than that of their normal-ripening parents. There were no detrimental effects of the alc heterozygous condition on fruit color, firmness, or size. The background into which alc was introduced also affected fruit quality and shelf life. These results indicate hybrids heterozygous for the alc ripening mutant can produce commercially acceptable fruit with significantly longer shelf life than their normal-ripening parents.