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  • Author or Editor: Mark Sherman x
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Abstract

Most people have experienced occasions when senescence in a horticultural commodity has disappointed them as consumers. This may have been when a dozen roses, ordered for someone special, failed to open and deliver the visual and fragrant pleasure that was expected. Perhaps it was when the bushel of apples stored in the cellar was found to be shrivelled and too soft to consume. Our personal experiences take on economic significance when one considers the cumulative effect of the losses that occur during the harvesting, handling, storage, and distribution of fresh fruits, vegetables, and flowers. Estimates have placed the losses during marketing at anywhere from 5% to 50%, depending on the commodity. Directly or indirectly, all of these losses are related to processes of senescence.

Open Access
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Abstract

The beneficial and harmful effects of ethylene (C2H4) on harvested horticultural products are well documented. The purpose of this presentation is to outline the technologies currently available in commercial horticulture for both the application of C2H4 to harvested horticultural crops, and the protection of these crops from the undesirable effects of C2H4. The research base for this topic cuts across many areas of considerable postharvest research, including temperature effects, atmospheric modification, and regulation of C2H4 synthesis. A complete review of any of these topics is beyond the scope of the presentation, and, in most instances, the reader is referred to recent research reports or comprehensive reviews of the specific subject.

Open Access

Abstract

Three jointless tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars, ‘MH-1’, ‘Hayslip’, and ‘Burgis’, were evaluated for fruit yields using a semi-mechanical freshmarket tomato harvester. Harvest dates were 85 or 99 days after transplanting in Fall 1980, and 88 or 95 days after transplanting in Fall 1982. Total fruit yields of the late harvest were significantly higher than the early harvest in 1982, but not in 1980. An increased percentage yield (weight basis) of colored fruit occurred during the late harvest in both trials. ‘Burgis’ and ‘Hayslip’ had significantly higher green fruit yields and lower ripe fruit yields than ‘MH-1’ in both years. Yields of semi-mechanically harvested fruit were reduced by an average of 25% and 47% when compared with manually harvested fruit yields during 1980 and 1982, respectively.

Open Access

Abstract

Grower tours, one of the most effective agricultural extension teaching methods (13), have been conducted for many years to production areas generally unfamiliar to participating growers and agribusiness people. Most consist simply of a sequence of visits to farms or agribusinesses where the owners (managers) of the visited businesses explain the operation observed as the tour proceeds through the facility.

Open Access

Abstract

Following curing and a period of storage at 10°C, potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers were stored for 4 to 5 weeks at 1° or 10° in controlled atmospheres consisting of either air, 2.5% O2 (balance N2), or N2. CO2 production of tubers stored in air at 10° was relatively constant. When tubers were stored in air at 1°, CO2 production initially was lower than at 10° in air. It then increased to a maximum after about 15 days and eventually declined again. Storage in 2.5% O2 or N2 prevented the increase in CO2 production that occurred after several days of storage in air at 1°. Malate and citrate were the only organic acids detected in significant amounts in juice extracted from tubers when experiments were terminated. Changes in citrate showed no consistent trends. Tubers stored in air at 1° had higher sucrose, fructose, glucose, and malate levels than tubers stored at 10°. Storage in N2 at 1° prevented the malate, sucrose, and reducing sugar increases. Storage in 2.5% O2 inhibited the malate, fructose, and glucose increases at 1° and reduced the sucrose content of ‘Monona’ and ‘Norchip’ cultivars, which accumulated large amounts of sucrose during storage in air at 1°. Sucrose content of ‘Kennebec’ was not affected by 2.5% O2. Storage in 2.5% O2 slowed the accumulation of fructose and glucose, but only ‘Monona’ and ‘Norchip’ yielded acceptable chips after storage in 2.5% O2 at 1°. All 3 cultivars yielded acceptably colored chips after storage in N2 at 1°, but the development of blackheart when tubers were returned to air makes N2 an unacceptable storage atmosphere at this temperature. Storage in N2 resulted in soft rot at 10°.

Open Access

Abstract

Three pairs of near-isogenic lines of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) with and without gene B were compared for storability. The test included ‘Bareqet’ (B+/B+) and ‘Goldy’ (B/B+) of the zucchini type, ‘Caserta’ (B +/B +) and ‘Precocious Caserta’ (B/B) of the vegetable marrow type, and ‘Benning’s Green Tint’ (B +/B +) and the ‘Benning’s Yellow Tint’ (B/B) of the scallop type. Fruit were hand-harvested between 3 and 5 days past anthesis and stored for up to 22 days at 5°C and 85% to 95% RH. Weight loss was higher in the cultivar with gene B for two of the three types (vegetable marrow and scallop). Shrivel, chilling injury, and overall appearance ratings were worse for the cultivar with gene B for all three types. Weight loss was highest in the vegetable marrow type, intermediate in the zucchini type, and lowest in the scallop type. Shrivel, chilling injury, and appearance, 7 days after harvest, were most severe in the vegetable marrow type.

Open Access

Abstract

Thorough precooling of bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L. cv. California Wonder) to 10°C (50°F) soon after harvest delayed, but did not prevent, soft rot decay caused by Erwinia carotovora (L. R. Jones) Holland. There was little weight loss and shrivel in any of the treatments. Inoculated peppers with intact or partial peduncles had better overall visual quality and were less decayed than peppers with no peduncles.

Open Access

Graduate students in horticulture at the Univ. of California, Davis, spent an academic quarter learning how to use the Internet and World-Wide Web (WWW) to access and collect information. The collected information was organized and placed on the WWW where it is available to anyone with access to the Internet.

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