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  • Author or Editor: Mark S. West x
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Uniconazole was applied once as a soil drench (15, 30, or 45 mg a.i./plant) or foliar spray (500, 1000, or 1500 mg liter-1, about 175 ml/plant) to established, field-grown thorny elaeagnus (Elaeagnus pungens Thunb. Fruitlandii) and leyland cypress [× Cupressocyparis leylandii (A.B. Jacks. & Dallim.) Dallim. & A.B. Jacks]. At the end of the second growing season following treatment, shoot dry weights (SDW) of thorny elaeagnus decreased with increasing rates of drench-applied uniconazole, while SDW of plants receiving the foliar application were not affected by increasing rates. Growth indices of leyland cypress, determined twice during the first growing season and at the end of the second growing season, were not influenced by application method or rate. Uniconazole applied as a soil drench at 15 to 45 mg a.i./plant suppressed growth of established thorny elaeagnus for at least two growing seasons, but leyland cypress was not affected by uniconazole drench or foliar spray at tested rates. No phytotoxicity was observed on either species in any treatment during the experiment.

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Nutrient status of young pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] trees grown under eight combinations of orchard floor management and irrigation was determined by leaf and soil analyses. Orchard floor management practices were weedy-unmowed, weedy-mowed, weed control with herbicides, and weed control by disking, with trees either irrigated or nonirrigated. The element most affected by treatment was K. Mean leaf K for the two sample years was significantly (P < 0.01) lower in the weedy plots (0.56% K) than in those where weeds were controlled (0.76% K), suggesting a highly competitive effect of weeds for K with young pecan trees. Weed competition also suppressed leaf Ca and Mg, but presence of weeds or sod resulted in higher soil pH and higher leaf Zn. Leaf concentrations of N, P, B, Cu, and Fe were not significantly affected by the treatments.

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Pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] trees were grown in containers in a pine bark and sand medium amended with O, 3.0, 5.9, 8.9, or 11.9 kg dolomitic limestone/m. Mouse-ear symptom expression, characterized by small, rounded, cupped, and slightly wrinkled leaflets, increased linearly as dolomitic lime rate increased. Plant growth was best at 3.0 kg dolomitic lime/m, which resulted in a growth medium pH of 4.3.

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Silver reflective plastic mulches were compared with conventional bare-ground culture of yellow crookneck summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. var. melopepo Alef.) for reducing aphids and the following mosaic virus diseases: cucumber mosaic, watermelon mosaic I and II, zucchini yellows mosaic, and squash mosaic. Plants grown on silver plastic mulch produced higher marketable yields than those grown on bare ground. Other colors (white, yellow, and black with yellow edges) of plastic mulch were intermediate in their effects on aphid population and virus disease reduction. Silver reflective mulch alone and silver reflective mulch with insecticide were superior to other colors of plastic mulch in reducing aphid populations. Silver reflective plastic mulch, with or without insecticide, resulted in 10 to 13 days delay in the onset of the mosaic diseases noted.

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