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  • Author or Editor: Marjorie Albright x
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Abstract

This very complex topic must be dealt with only superficially here. Volumes have been written about sensory evaluation, and the best that this short paper can do is to generalize about sensory evaluation of horticultural commodities from our experience with tomatoes.

Open Access

Abstract

High sugar and acid F1 hybrids of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were rated higher in sweetness, sourness, and overall flavor intensity than the standard cultivar ‘Cal Ace’. Titratable acidity and soluble solids content were responsible for most of the differences in overall flavor intensity among these hybrids, their parents, and ‘Cal Ace’. The results support the idea that improved tomato flavor can be achieved via increased sugar and acid content.

Open Access

Abstract

Sugars, acids and their interactions were important to sourness, sweetness, and overall flavor intensity in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Fructose and citric acid were more important to sweetness and sourness than glucose and malic acid, respectively. The pH was a better objective measure of sourness than titratable acidity. An interaction between glucose and citric acid on sweetness was observed. Quantitative differences in 11 volatile compounds were found among the cultivars. Several of these volatiles were significantly related to variation in the flavor characteristics studied. Three compounds (peaks (20–21), 51, and 75) appeared to be more important to the “tomato-like” character.

Open Access

Abstract

Locular content ranged between 14.4 and 35.0% among 7 cultivars of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.): ‘Calmart’, ‘Cal Ace’, ‘Ace 55’, ‘Early Pak 7’, ‘Earliana’, ‘Rick High Sugar’, and ‘Cherry’. There was a strong negative correlation between fruit weight and percent locular tissue. Based on means of all cultivars, the pericarp portion contained about 20% more reducing sugars and 36% more glucose than the locular portion. No significant differences in soluble solids content or fructose concentration were noted. The locular portion had 48 and 57% higher titratable acidity and citric acid, respectively, than the pericarp, but no differences in malic acid concentration or pH were observed. Cultivars with large locular portion and with high concentration of acids and sugars are those which have previously been found to be of good flavor quality.

Open Access

Abstract

Composition and sensory characteristics were investigated to determine the effect of ripeness at picking on fresh market flavor of ‘Cal Ace’ (1974, 1975, 1976) and ‘Cherry’, ‘Calmart’, and ‘Early Pak 7’ (1976) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Tomatoes picked at earlier stages of ripeness and ripened at 20°C were evaluated by panelists as being less sweet, more sour, less “tomato-like” and having more “off-flavor” than those picked at the table-ripe stage. Objective tests showed these fruits had less sugars and reduced ascorbic acid, and varied significantly in volatile composition. The magnitude of these differences varied greatly among the cultivars. In ‘Cal Ace’ the “off-flavor” characteristic was largely correlated with a volatile compound (peak 43) but in other cultivars seven other volatile compounds also appeared to play a role.

Open Access

Abstract

Sensory evaluations and chemical analyses were used to investigate the effects of various postharvest handling procedures on composition and flavor quality of ‘Cal Ace’ tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) harvested at the mature-green and light-pink stages. Ethylene treatment to speed ripening of green tomatoes at 20°C resulted in a higher reduced ascorbic acid content at the table-ripe stage and did not influence flavor when compared with fruits ripened without added ethylene. Using a low-O2 atmosphere to retard ripening had less of an effect on flavor than stage of ripeness at harvest. No differences were found between fruits where ripening was delayed by using 4% O2-atmosphere at 20° or by using low temperature (12.5°). Exposing fruits to 5° for 7 days before ripening at 20° affected flavor; i.e., chilled fruits were more acid. Above the chilling range (0-12.5°); duration of holding after harvest was more important than storage temperature. Lower holding periods resulted in loss of characteristic “tomato-like” flavor and development of “off-flavors.” Mature-green fruits, ripened at 20° under restricted air flow, had increased “off-flavors” when compared to those ripened under accelerated air exchange. Light-pink fruits subjected to impact bruising before ripening had more “off-flavor” and less “tomatolike” flavor than those without physical damage. Quantitative differences in a few volatile components were found with certain treatments, but no qualitative differences were detected and there was no significant difference in total volatile content among any of the treatments tested.

Open Access

Abstract

Four amino acids (glutamic, γ-aminobutyric, glutamine, and aspartic) make up about 80% of the total free amino acids in fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv. Cal Ace). Fruits harvested at the table-ripe stage contained more alanine and less glutamic acid than those picked green or at the breaker (incipient red color) stage and ripened at 20°C to table-ripe. The higher glutamic acid concentrations in fruit picked at the breaker or earlier stages were paralled to higher scores for “off-flavor,” as described by a taste panel, relative to fruits picked table-ripe. However, when monopotassium glutamate (60, 120, or 180 mg/l00g) was added to diced table-ripe fruits, the panelists were not able to detect flavor differences due to increased glutamic acid concn. Differences in amino acid composition associated with fruit ripeness when picked do not appear to be directly related to flavor differences.

Open Access