The present work is the first report in vitro on root induction of Agave salmiana Otto, using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Several concentrations of bacteria and acetosyringone were used, and different inoculation sites were tested, such as leaves, shaft, and root. Incubation time in darkness was 6 days. The transformed adventitious roots appeared 25 days after inoculation. The best treatment was when the shaft was inoculated with: 1 × 108 bacteria/mL and 100 μm acetosyringone; in this treatment, induction of transformed roots was 57.5% in the inoculated sites. The activity and presence of the foreign genes in the transformed roots of A. salmianawere verified as follows: 1) histochemical staining for GUS activity was determined in 80% of the tested root; and 2) molecular analysis via PCR was made to verify the presence of nptII gene and rol B gene (both were present in 60% of the tested root). This is the first report of the arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization on wild roots and transformed roots of Agavewith Glomus intraradicesSchenck and Smith. The result of the monoxenic culture was as follows: mother spore germinated 5 days; the colonization of the transformed roots was 70%. Then we proceeded to the recovery of daughter spores, in which we obtained an average 300 daughter spores per petri dish, 6 months after inoculation.
The contribution of arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungus (AMF) on hormonal levels increase in chili plants, at different steps is currently unknown. In this experiment was evaluated the effect of Glomus sp. Zac-19, G. etunicatum and G. intraradices, inoculation mirasol and ancho cultivars, under greenhouse conditions. Plants were growing in pots containing 1 kg of substrate (3 sand: 1 soil ratio). The effect was measured on fresh fruit production and indolacetic acid, giberellin GA3 and 6-aminopurine concentration. Also plant parameters measured were: plant height, foliar area, stem diameter, root length, aerial fresh weight, total fresh weight, fruit weight and mycorrhizal colonization. All treatments were imposed using 16 replications in a full random design. Results shown that mycorrhizal colonization average of the three fungus was 44% in mirasol cultivar y 42% in ancho cultivar. Mycorrhizal colonization had an effect on growth and development in both cultivars, expressed in a greater height, leaf number, foliar area, total fresh weigh and fruit mass. Was registered an increase of 80% in the yield in inoculated plants respecting to control. Indolacetic acid and gibberellins concentration in shoots, were bigger in plants colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) than in control. The 6-aminopurine levels in roots of colonized plants by AMF shown higher values. These results suggest that AM fungi modify the hormonal concentration and some growth factors in chili plants.