Five Utah Native Plant Propagation workshops during Mar. 2005 supplied 100 participants with specialized containers and potting mix, native plant seed, resource booklet, lecture, and instructor supervision during the hands-on workshop portion. Forty-three participants responded to a Sept. 2005 follow-up survey. Seedling survival averaged 6.4 seedlings per tray of 72 cells, or 8.8%. Only 36% of the participants used the resource booklet after the workshop. Most survey respondents did not cite particular reasons for seedling failure. Seed propagation workshops are challenging due to: 1) wide variance in participants' horticultural experience; 2) limited materials and resources; and 3) inherent inconsistencies in native plant seed viability. Before attending future seed propagation workshops, registrants will receive seedling cultivation information to improve success rates.
Growth of `Apache' pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] seedlings was evaluated for 3 years when grown in a 11.2-m2 weed-free area or when various combinations of one or two plants of cutleaf evening primrose (Oenothera laciniata Hill), a cool-season species, or Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.), a warm-season species, were grown 30 cm from the tree, with the rest of the 11.2-m2 area weed-free. Either weed species alone suppressed tree growth compared to the weed-free control. A temporal succession of primrose followed by amaranth reduced growth most. After 3 years, two plants of primrose followed in succession by two of amaranth caused a 79% reduction in cumulative current-season's growth.
Leachates of living Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Amaranthus sp. were applied to Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch. seedlings to compare effects on growth and elemental absorption. Water applied to the weed pot or control pot (no weeds present) leached through the pot and into a funnel with a tube attached, then directly into the corresponding pecan seedling pot. After 4 months of growth, pecan seedlings receiving weed leachates had less leaf area and were shorter than those watered through control pots. These results suggest that leachates from these two weed species inhibit pecan growth, independent of any competition effects.
Two studies were conducted to determine if selected grass and dicot species had an allelopathic interaction with pecan (Carya illinoinensis Wangenh. C. Koch). Leachate from pots with established grasses or dicots was used to irrigate container-grown pecan trees. Leachates from bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Shreb. cv. Kentucky 31), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), and cutleaf evening primrose (Oenothera laciniata Hill) reduced leaf area and leaf dry weight about 20% compared to the controls. Bermudagrass, tall fescue, and primrose leachate decreased pecan root weight 17%, trunk weight 22%, and total tree dry weight 19% compared to the control. In a second study, trees were 10% shorter than the control when irrigated with bermudagrass or pigweed leachate.