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- Author or Editor: Margaret A. Cliff x
The splitting of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) just before harvest can be a considerable problem in the Okanagan Valley (BC, Canada). In an attempt to minimize economic losses, growers apply a commercial cherry cuticle supplement in anticipation of a rainfall event. However, it is unknown if this product affects flavor, texture (crispness, firmness, and juiciness), or visual characteristics (stem browning, pitting, and pebbling) of sweet cherry. Therefore, this research was undertaken to evaluate the effects of a cherry cuticle supplement on the sensory, physicochemical, and visual characteristics of ‘Skeena’ sweet cherry. Firmness measurements were assessed with a fruit-firmness tester, whereas sensory determinations were assessed at first bite (whole-cherry crispness) and after multiple chews (flesh firmness) by a panel of 14 trained panelists. Fruit treated with the cherry cuticle supplement had lower instrumental firmness compared with the control, which was most pronounced after 28 days, with a reduction of 0.53 N. Treated fruit also had significantly lower sensory firmness and higher juiciness than the control fruit. Fruit treated with the cherry cuticle supplement had reduced water loss, less pitting, and lower stem-pull force, resulting in higher frequency of detachment of the stems. Further research would be necessary to evaluate the effects with other cultivars, and in years with rainfall events, as well as when hydrocooling is used.
Eighty-five cultivars, selections and clones from European winegrape (Vitis spp.) breeding and selection programs were evaluated between 1993 and 1995 in a randomized complete-block experiment. These included Vitis vinifera clones from France as well as Freiburg, Geisenheim, and Weinsberg, Germany. Small yield and fruit composition differences were found amongst the 'Chardonnay' clones. The standard Prosser clone produced wines with highest earthy aroma and acidity and with lowest perfumy aroma, body and finish; Dijon clones 76 and 96 were most perfumy and least vegetal. `Pinot noir' clones also differed somewhat in terms of yield and fruit composition; `Samtröt', `Gamay Beaujolais', and clone Q1342-01 were amongst the most highly colored clones. These clones also tended to have the most intense berry and currant aromas as well as berry, cherry, and currant flavors. These aforementioned clones appear to be highly adaptable to viticultural regions where low heat units during fruit maturation presently limit industry growth.
Eighty-five cultivars, selections and clones of winegrapes (Vitis) from European breeding and selection programs were evaluated between 1993–95 in a randomized completeblock experiment. These included selections from Alzey, Freiburg, Geilweilerhof, Geisenheim, Weinsberg, and Würzburg (Germany); Hungary; and the former USSR. Vines were grown under an organic management regime that included sodium silicate sprays for powdery mildew (Uncinula necator) control and oil + detergent for insect control but with little to no nitrogen or other nutritional inputs. The Weinsberg cultivars Heroldrebe and Helfensteiner showed promise viticulturally and sensorially as alternatives to `Pinot noir'. Cultivars from Geisenheim (`Gm 7117-10' and `Gm 7117-26') and Würzburg (`Cantaro' and `Fontanara') appeared promising as `Riesling' alternatives; many displayed similar sensory characteristics to `Riesling', along with reasonable viticultural performance. Cultivars selected at Alzey (`Faberrebe'), Freiburg (`Nobling'), and Weinsberg (`Holder') displayed sensory characteristics superior to the standard cultivar Müller-Thurgau, with very intense muscat, pear, fig, and spicy aromas and flavors. Several muscat-flavored Hungarian white wine cultivars appeared to be superior viticulturally and sensorially to the standard `Csabagyongye'; these included `Kozma Palne Muscotaly', `Zefir', and `Zengo'. Miscellaneous red wine cultivars that showed promise included Geilweilerhof cultivar Regent, and Hungarian selections Kozma 55 and Kozma 525. Vine yields decreased substantially in the 3-year evaluation period, primarily due to lack of nitrogen. Many of these cultivars appeared to be highly adaptable to viticultural regions where cold winters and low heat units during fruit maturation presently restrict cultivar choices.