Manuel Palada and Deng Lin Wu
Production of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) during the hot-wet season in the lowland humid tropics can be increased using grafted plants and rainshelter. This technology can reduce soil-borne diseases, improve the ability of tomato plants to tolerate high temperatures and flooding due to high rainfall, and protect the crop from the impact of heavy rains. AVRDC has developed tomato lines that are resistant to virus diseases and high temperatures. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of these lines in the hot-wet season, with and without rainshelter protection. Tomato lines (CHT501, TLCV15, and FMTT847) were grafted onto eggplant (Solanum melongena cv. EG203) rootstock and grown under rainshelter and open field. Nongrafted plants of three lines were also grown under two rainshelter treatments. The experimental design was a split-plot with four replications. Plants were managed using AVRDC standard practices for summer tomato production. TLCV15 and FMTT847 were highly resistant to tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV), whereas CHT501 was greatly infected by the virus disease. All nongrafted plants died from bacterial wilt, whereas grafted plants survived the disease and outyielded nongrafted plants by 233% in the open field and 143% under rainshelters. Plants under rainshelters had a slightly lower yield than in the open field, but the difference was nonsignificant. Due to lack of frequent high rainfall during the season, the benefit of rainshelter was not detected and realized. It was concluded that TLCV15 and FMTT847 are well suited for grafted tomato production during the hot-wet season.
Manuel Palada and Deng Lin Wu
Chili pepper (Capsicumannuum cv. Delicacy) was grown in single- and double-bed rainshelters and irrigated using furrow and drip irrigation to determine effect on yield and efficiency of water and nutrient application in the lowland tropics of southern Taiwan during the hot wet season. The experiment was laid out using a split-plot design with four replications. The main plots were rainshelters (single, double, open field) and the two irrigation methods (furrow and drip) were the subplots. Grafted chili seedlings were transplanted in double rows on raised beds at row spacing of 80 cm and plant spacing of 50 cm. The furrow-irrigated crop was applied with basal N-P2O5-K2O at the rate of 180–180–180 kg·ha-1 and 240–150–180 kg·ha-1 of N-P2O5-K2O as sidedressing. The drip-irrigated crop received half of the total rate applied for the furrow-irrigated crop. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in marketable yield were observed between rainshelter treatments. Highest yield (42.2 t·ha-1) was produced from the single-bed rainshelter, and crops grown under double-bed rainshelters produced the lowest marketable yield. Irrigation method did not significantly influence marketable yield, but crops grown under drip irrigation produced a higher yield than furrow-irrigated crops. Nutrient uptake by plants grown under drip irrigation was also higher (P < 0.05) than for furrow-irrigated crops. Water use efficiency was 60.7% higher in drip-irrigated plots. Results indicate that in high rainfall vegetable production areas, drip irrigation minimizes nutrient loss through leaching and maximizes efficiency of fertilizer use.
Toni A. Thomas and Manuel C. Palada
In the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) more than 400 plants are recorded as having been used for medicinal purposes. Traditional use of medicinal plants (locally known as “bush”) is based on Amerindian, African and European influences. Despite the predominance of “western medicine”, many Virgin Islanders still use medicinal plants for self-treatments, beverages and culinary purposes. Traditionally, medicinal plants were either collected growing wild or cultivated and often sold in marketplaces for local consumption. This method of marketing still exists, but new marketing outlets are developing. Selections of popular medicinal plants (imported and local) appear both fresh and packaged dry in supermarkets and specialty shops. Blended brews (i.e. “bush teas”) are available in restaurants, bakeries and delicatessens. Creatively packaged products are featured in stores and hotels catering to the tourist trade. Current expanding marketing trends target the great number of tourists visiting the USVI. Future plans with significant impact on marketing include the use of solar driers and establishment of a Fanners' Cooperative.
Manuel C. Palada and Stafford M.A. Crossm
The Caribbean region is one major source of most herbs and spices consumed in the U.S. Although the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) is part of the Caribbean, local production of herbs and spices does not contribute significantly to exports into the U.S. market. Nevertheless, culinary herbs area” important horticultural crop in the USVI and their sale provides income for many small-scale growers. Little research has been done to improve field production in the USVI. Inefficient cultural practices used by growers result in low yields. Lack of information on fertilizer rates, irrigation and pest control methods is a major constraint to high yields. In 1988, the Agricultural Experiment Station initiated a project to improve field production of herbs and spices in the USVI. Use of drip irrigation, mulching and fertilizers has improved yields of basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris). This paper will discuss crop management studies to improve culinary herb production in the USVI. Increasing production may help reduce U.S. imports of these specialty crops from other Caribbean island nations.
Chin H. Ma and Manuel C. Palada
High levels of N fertilizers are generally applied in intensive leafy vegetable production in the peri-urban agriculture of Southeast Asia. This study was conducted to develop a simple and rapid method of determining nitrate-N accumulation in selected leafy vegetables. Five leafy vegetables, including amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor), kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica), Ethiopian kale (Brassica carinata), choysum (Brassica campestris sp. parachinensis), and leafy lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were grown on raised beds in 32-mesh nethouse in randomized complete-block design with four replications. The crops were fertilized with eight N levels: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350 kg·ha-1 in three splits. At harvest, nitrate contents were determined in tissue sap of fully expanded leaf blades, petioles and whole plant using a Cardy nitrate meter. Chlorophyll content readings were also measured on the same leaf using a chlorophyll meter. Nitrate accumulations varied with vegetable species. Significant correlations (P< 0.001) existed between N fertilizer rate and nitrate content as well as leaf chlorophyll and yield. Using N application rate of 200 kg·ha-1, nitrate accumulation in Ethiopian kale was highest (7000 ppm), followed by kangkong (4000 ppm), amaranth (3500 ppm), and leafy lettuce (1200 ppm). The correlation between leaf chlorophyll meter reading (LCMR) and nitrate content was also significant (P< 0.001), suggesting the feasibility of using Cardy nitrate meter test and LCMR for monitoring production of low-nitrate and safe vegetables. The Cardy meter was also sensitive in detecting soil nitrate-N below 20 ppm and is a rapid and reliable alternative to conventional distillation method.
Ramon Arancibia, Manuel Palada, Mack Thetford and Shibu Jose
Specialty cut flowers may be suited to sustainable production system in the tropics and an agroforestry approach was developed to add a commercial value to unused forest areas. Ginger lily (Alpinia purpurata), a specialty tropical cut flower, was planted under a sustainable alley cropping system with moringa (Moringa oleifera), to evaluate the biophysical interactions between system components. Moringa trees were planted in rows 5 m apart and were 5 years old at the time ginger lilies were planted on 1 June 2005. Two rows of ginger lilies spaced 0.6 m in row and 1.7 m between rows were planted on a 1-foot-high bed between moringa rows when trees were about 6 m tall. Alley plot length was 10 m. After a month, plant establishment was 96%. In July, the moringa trees were pruned down to 1.5 m and the biomass (foliage) was used as green manure. Ginger lilies were also mulched with straw. Plots were gradually shaded as moringa shoots developed reducing the photosynthetic photon flux to 40% of direct sun light in September and to 15% four months later. Six months after planting, height and number of shoots in shaded ginger lilies were 58% and 30% of plants in full sun, respectively. Ginger lilies began to flower 5 months after planting in the sunny plots, but no flowers were produced after 7 months in the shady plots. Since soil and tissue nitrate-N was the same between treatments, moringa biomass appears to be insufficient to increase the nutrient status of the crop. In addition, the low light intensity in the alley appears to be suboptimal for growth and production of ginger lilies.
Manuel C. Palada, Thomas J. Kalb and Thomas A. Lumpkin
AVRDC–The World Vegetable Center was established in 1971 as a not-for-profit international agricultural research institute whose mission is to reduce malnutrition and poverty among the poor through vegetable research and development. Over the past 30 years, AVRDC has developed a vast array of international public goods. The Center plays an essential role in bringing international and interdisciplinary teams together to develop technologies, empower farmers, and address major vegetable-related issues in the developing world. In its unique role, AVRDC functions as a catalyst to 1) build international and interdisciplinary coalitions that engage in vegetable and nutrition issues; 2) generate and disseminate improved germplasm and technologies that address economic and nutritional needs of the poor; 3) collect, characterize, and conserve vegetable germplasm resources for worldwide use; and 4) provide globally accessible, user-friendly, science-based, appropriate technology. In enhancing and promoting vegetable production and consumption in developing world, AVRDC's research programs contribute to increased productivity of the vegetable sector, equity in economic development in favor of rural and urban poor, healthy and more diversified diets for low-income families, environmentally friendly and safe production of vegetables, and improved sustainability of cropping systems. Recent achievements at AVRDC that greatly impact tropical horticulture in the developing world include virus-resistant tomatoes raising farmers income, hybrid sweet pepper breaking the yield barrier in the tropics, flood-resistant chili peppers opening new market opportunities, broccoli varieties for monsoon season, pesticide-free eggplant and leafy vegetable production systems and fertilizer systems that protect the environment. Beyond vegetable crops, AVRDC is playing an important role in expanding and promoting research and development efforts for high value horticultural crops, including fruit, ornamentals, and medicinal plants through its new Global Horticulture Initiative. AVRDC believes that horticulture crop production provides jobs and is an engine for economic growth. The important role AVRDC–The World Vegetable Center plays in developing and promoting tropical horticultural crops is discussed in this paper.
Manuel C. Palada, Stafford M.A. Crossman and Allison M. Davis
Chive (Allium schoenoprasum) is one of the most popular culinary herbs in the Virgin Islands, and local demand is always high throughout the year. However, local production is not sufficient to meet increasing demands. Chive production is constrained by insect pests, weeds, and high cost of irrigation water. A study was conducted to compare the influence of organic and synthetic mulches on yield and economic returns from chive production. The study also evaluated the effect of mulch on weeds and water use. Chives were planted in plots consisting of three rows 3.6 m long. Plants were spaced 20 cm within rows 41 cm apart. The plots were mulched with grass straw, wood chips, shredded paper, and white plastic. A control plot (no mulch) was also planted for comparison. Plots were arranged in randomized complete-block design with four replications. All plots were drip-irrigated and soil moisture tension maintaned at 30 kPa. Chives grown with grass straw mulch produced taller plants and higher number of tillers (slips) than all other mulch treatments. Total fresh yield of plots with grass straw mulch was superior to all other mulch treatments including the control. On the average, plots with grass straw mulch produced 1203 g/m2 of fresh chives. All mulches resulted in reduced weed population compared to the control (no mulch). Due to high rainfall during the growing season, differences in irrigation water use were not significant. Economic comparison indicated that the net return above mulch costs was 50% higher with grass straw than with other mulch treatments. To improve production and income, herb growers should consider using grass straw and realize other benefits, including weed control and improved soil fertility.