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Sour orange leaves (Citrus aurantium L.) from cold-hardened and unhardened plants were sectioned and prepared for light and electronmicroscopy examination after freezing at -3.3°C and -6.7°. Severe membrane destruction was visible in both hardened and unhardened cells after freezing. These membranes included the tonoplast, outer chloroplast membrane, and the cristae membrane in the mitochrondria. The thylakoids of the grana, the intergrana lamella, and the outer mitochrondrial membranes remained intact. Membrane destruction resulted in gross disorganization of cell contents. Disruption of cells was evident and included palisade and mesophyll cells, the lower epidermal layer, and xylem, fiber, and pith cells in the vascular system.

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