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  • Author or Editor: Malcolm N. Dana x
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Abstract

6-(Benzylamino)-9-(2-tetrahydrophyranyl)-9H-purine (PBA) promoted production of stolons, branch stolons, branch crowns and daughter plants in ‘Sparkle’ Junebearing and ‘Ozark Beauty’ everbearing strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.). Gibberellic acid (GA3) induced no promotion on either cultivar. Combinations of PBA and GA3 induced a greater effect on stolon and daughter plant production for ‘Ozark Beauty’ than did PBA alone. Increase in the number of daughter plants was proportional to the number of stolons produced. PBA suppressed rooting of the daughter plants. Addition of GA3 to the foliar treatment did not overcome rooting suppression of PBA.

Open Access

Abstract

Cranberry flower development was studied in the greenhouse on uprights thinned to a single flower. Flowers started opening each hour of the day. The interval from petal separation to fully open flowers varied from 2 to 12 hr with 80% of the flowers fully open within 6 hr. Elongation of the style and emergence of the stigma through the anther ring occurred on 94% of the flowers during the 24 - 48 hr period after the petals were fully reflexed. The stigma was pollen receptive at the time of petal separation. The pollen tube had traversed the style 48 hr after pollination in 37% of the flowers examined. Removal of the style 72 hr after pollination no longer prevented fruit development.

Open Access

Abstract

Cranberries (Vactinium maerocarpon Ait), are Wisconsin's major fruit crop. Current annual production averages well over 45 million kg, and on-farm value exceeded $53 million in 1983. Wisconsin produced 40% of the United States cranberry crop in 1982; Massachusetts contributed 43%, and Oregon, Washington, and New Jersey produced 17%.

Open Access

Abstract

Correlation and regression analyses were made on growth measurements obtained from ‘Dunlap,’ ‘Sparkle’ and ‘Catskill’ strawberry plants grown in the greenhouse. Two tests were evaluated in which plants of 3 and 7 age groups and a range of weights were included. Results indicated close relationships between many growth measurements. These included high correlations between initial plant weight and plant age, leaf production rate, and early leaf area. After 3 or 4 months, growth correlations of .5 to .8 were still present between initial plant weight and leaf area and between early and late leaf area measurements. Correlations of .3 to .8 were found between initial weight or plant age and the number of flower buds. Correlations were generally similar in all cultivars and for both tests. The results indicate that some of these measurements could be used to predict or evaluate growth response of strawberry plants to applied treatments.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Sparkle’ and ‘Honeoye’ strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne) were planted into plots of newly seeded perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), or no grass. After a 1985 windstorm during the green fruit stage, yield was higher in living mulch plots than in control plots and fruit from control plots were small and dark relative to those from the ryegrass plots. In 1986, all plots had similar yields. All plants grew at similar rates during the establishment year. Later, strawberry plants in living mulch plots had smaller leaves than plants in control plots. Plants in all treatments contained above the critical concentrations of leaf N on most sampling dates. Soil under grass was less compacted and was cooler than cultivated soil. Living mulch prevented annual weed establishment after the first and improved winter survival of flower buds. A tillering type of ryegrass was the best living mulch of the three species tested. It quickly covered the ground but did not spread into the crop rows, and grew tall enough to afford wind protection.

Open Access

Abstract

Partial or complete removal of developing inflorescences from primocanes of ‘Heritage’ fall-bearing red raspberry had no effect on the number of inflorescences initiated. Inflorescence removal stimulated sucker initiation and increased fruit size.

Open Access

Abstract

A foliar spray of 6-(benzylamino)-9-(2-tetrahydropyranyl)-9H-purine (PBA) induced thickening and restricted elongation of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) petioles and stolon internodes. Leaf area of treated plants was lower than that of untreated plants. Stolon internodes of treated plants increased in cell size and number. Gibberellic acid (GA3) promoted leaf expansion and elongation of petioles and stolon internodes. A combination of PBA and GA3 induced less thickening and more elongation of petioles and stolon internodes and greater leaf area compared to treatment with PBA alone. There was a breakdown of cell walls of pith parenchyma in stolon internodes of untreated plants while the cell walls of PBA and GA3 treated plants remained intact.

Open Access

Abstract

In vitro cultures were used to study the development of axillary bud and stolon tip explants of cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.). Explants cultured on Murashige-Skoog basal media containing kinetin at 1, 5, or 10 mg/liter developed into leafy shoots. Low concentration of kinetin (1 mg/liter) promoted the development of both types of explants into single shoots while higher concentration (10 mg/liter) promoted production of multiple leafy shoots developing from axillary buds of the earlier formed leafy shoots. NAA at 1 mg/liter promoted callus growth from both types of explants. Axillary bud explants developed into stolons when cultured on media containing gibberellic acid (GA3) at 5, 10 or 20 mg/liter. Stolon apices developed into leafy shoots while the second axillary stolon buds of the tips were inhibited when the explants were cultured on GA3-containing media. Combinations of GA3 and kinetin induced the development of axillary bud explants into structures intermediate in form between those of stolons and leafy shoots. Stolon apices and stolon axillary buds at the stolon tips developed into leafy shoots and continuing stolons, respectively, when the explants were cultured on a kinetin-containing medium for one week, and then transferred onto a GA3-containing medium. Thus, the developmental pathway of axillary strawberry buds was shown to be responsive to a balance between GA and cytokinins following removal from apical dominance.

Open Access

Abstract

Flower bud initiation in mature overwintering canes of ‘Heritage’ red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), a primocane-fruiting cultivar, began below the last inflorescence on the current year's growth in October and was completed by the end of December. Flower buds beyond the stage of initiation were not observed in noncold treated canes. However, in cold treated canes gradual basipetal flower bud development beyond initiation was observed. In non-cold treated overwintering canes of ‘Latham’, a June-bearing cultivar, flower bud induction and initiation occurred but no further development was observed.

Open Access

Abstract

Low temperature was not a requirement for flowering in ‘Heritage’, a primocane-fruiting red raspberry, as non-cold treated primocanes flowered at about 80 nodes. The amount of growth before flowering was inversely related to the amount of growth before cold exposure. Cold exposure (7°C) for 25 days at the 10-12 or 14-16 nodes stages of growth was followed by flowering at 32 and 28 nodes, respectively. Winter cold exposure until mid-December at the stage of adventitious buds on the root resulted in flowering at 41 nodes. Cold treatment did not influence the number of nodes that developed inflorescences on any one primocane.

Open Access