Phytoremediation is an environmentally friendly and effective method of reducing contaminating ions to very low levels. In this study, the effects of different concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) on vegetative growth and the chemical and biochemical compositions of Salix mucronata as well as the potential for phytoextraction of these metals by plant organs were investigated. S. mucronata had the highest survival percentage (100%) in the presence of CdCl2, CuCl2, and Pb acetate up to 80, 200, and 850 mg·kg−1 in soil, respectively. A negative influence of these metals on vegetative and chemical parameters was observed relative to the control plants. The potential role of antioxidant enzymes in protecting plants from oxidative injury was examined by analyzing the antioxidant enzyme activities of plants grown in contaminated and control soils. Enzymatic activities and electrolyte leakage were higher in the plants grown in soil with increasing heavy metals than in the control plants. The bioconcentrating efficiency of Cd, Cu, and Pb in plant organs was estimated to be medium [bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 1–0.1]; an exception was the BCF of Cu in the roots, which was estimated to be intensive (BCF < 1). Concentrations of 60 mg·kg−1 CdCl2, 50 mg·kg−1 CuCl2, and 650 mg·kg−1 Pb acetate caused significantly higher translocation compared with other levels of each pollutant. The biomass tolerance index was less than 1. Additionally, S. mucronata accumulated Cd, Cu, and Pb in the following order: roots > stems > leaves. Therefore, the risk of contamination through leaf fall can be minimized. Therefore, S. mucronata could be a good candidate for phytoremediation of Cd-, Cu-, and Pb-contaminated soil.