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- Author or Editor: M.W. Farnham x
We examined an in vitro culture method for propagating unconditioned, field-grown broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Botrytis group) from peduncle explants by testing 20 cultivars in fall and spring. Propagation was affected significantly by genotype (cultivar) and season. The percentage of explants regenerating shoots was significantly higher for cultivars grown in spring (17% to 100%) than in fall (0% to 66%). Shoot regeneration from explants of plants within a cultivar also varied significantly (0% to 100%). Additionally, the number of propagules produced per explant was influenced by cultivar and was highly correlated with the percentage of explants regenerating shoots. This method for propagating field-grown broccoli lines is useful, but its applicability can be limited by genetic and environmental factors.
The relative resistance of 18 cultivars of Brassica oleracea L. to attack by the sweetpotato whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)] was studied in screen cage (spring), field (autumn), and laboratory tests. The B. oleracea entries consisted of six types, including 16 green and two red cultivars. Cabbage (Capitata Group) and broccoli (Boytrytis Group) were less infested than other crops in a screen cage test, with kale, collard (Acephala Group), and brussels sprouts (Germmiter Group) experiencing relatively high and kohlrabi (Gongtlodes Group) intermediate infestations. Relative ranking of crops was similar in an autumn field study, with the exception of brussels sprouts, which had an intermediate level of infestation. Differences in numbers of whiteflies among cultivars within crops were negligible or inconsistent, except that red cultivars of brussels sprouts (`Rubine') and cabbage (`Red Acre') were much less infested than green cultivars. In a laboratory test, differences of whitefly oviposition and nymphal survival and development were small, indicating that nonpreference factors, rather than antibiosis, are the best explanations for differences in the numbers of whiteflies among the B. oleracea cultivars that were tested,
Winter production of collard and kale (Brassica oleracea L. Acephala Group) in the southeastern United States is limited by the tendency of these leafy green vegetables to bolt following vernalization. Collard and kale cultivars, landraces, and breeding lines were tested in four winter environments from 1992 to 1995 to determine differences among all included entries for winter production and tendency to bolt in a cold season environment. Essentially all entries survived the conditions of four winter environments. However, whether an entry reached harvest size depended on its date of 50% bolting. Collard typically bolted earlier than kale. Most kale entries reached a marketable size before bolting, while only the collard cultivars `Blue Max' and `Champion' and landraces G. Summersett and Mesic Zero consistently did the same. Several entries, for example, `Squire' kale and G. Summersett collard, usually did not bolt. Results of this research indicate that significant genetic control of the long-standing (delayed bolting) phenotype is present in collard and kale. Successful winter production of these cole crops can be better ensured by using a long-standing genotype.
Bacterial leaf blight incited by Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis (Pca) is a devastating disease with incidence reports worldwide and a wide host range capable of infecting all commercially valuable Brassica crops. With no chemical control options available, the most effective form of disease control is host plant resistance, but thus far resistant germplasm has only been identified in Brassica juncea L. (mustard greens). We report the first screening of Brassica oleracea L. var. viridis germplasm, including leafy green collard and collard-like accessions, for resistance to bacterial leaf blight by artificial inoculation of Pca in greenhouse trials. All commercial cultivars tested displayed an intermediate disease response resulting in leaf lesion development that renders the product unmarketable. Two sources of significant resistance were identified in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) viridis collection, which provides a valuable source of resistance alleles for collard cultivar development and introgression into other B. oleracea crops.