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Sweet corn (Zea mays L.) kernels are sinks, and sugars found in kernels must be translocated from a source. Stalk tissues can act as a source and a sink as sweet corn plants age. Quantity and types of sugars present in various sweet corn tissues during plant development are not well documented. Concentrations of fructose, glucose, sucrose, and their total were determined in the ninth stalk internodes (I9) from the 12-leaf stage (V12) to fresh-market maturity (R3) in sweet corn cultivars carrying either the su1se1, su1, or sh2 endosperm genotype. Developing ears were sampled at tassel emergence (VN) and silking (R1). Kernels and cob tissue were sampled separately at blister stage (R2) and R3. Correlation analysis was performed on concentrations of sugars at all developmental stages. In I9, from V12 to R3, levels of fructose and glucose declined and sucrose increased. In developing ears, concentrations of fructose and glucose increased from VN to R1. Concentrations of sugars in cobs in all cultivars were generally the same at R2 and R3. In kernels from R2 to R3 in the su1se1 cultivar, glucose decreased while the other sugars were unchanged; in the su1 cultivar, fructose decreased while levels of the other sugars stayed the same; and in the sh2 cultivar, fructose decreased, glucose was unchanged and sucrose increased. Correlation analysis suggested that the cultivars moved sugars to the kernels differently. The pattern of movement of sugars to kernels was most complex in the su1se1 cultivar than in the su1, which was more comlex than in the sh2 cultivar. Knowing how sugar content changes in the plant may be used to predict sugar content in kernels.

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Abstract

Determining the cost of producing individual plants is one of the most essential, yet difficult, responsibilities of a nursery manager (Dinter, 1988; Taylor et al., 1986). An abundance of interacting and unpredictable variables exert enormous influence on the cost of production. Despite the complexity of the task, controlling production through accurate cost accounting is imperative to establish long-range business plans, evaluate and compare alternative production methods, and ultimately increase profits (Anderson and Raiborn, 1977; Davidson and Mecklenburg, 1981; Furuta, 1978; Pappas and Brigham, 1979).

Open Access

Effects of three variables (vessel type, closure, and explant orientation) on microcutting quality were investigated using five woody species [low shadblow, Amefanchier spicata (Lam.) C. Koch (Syn. A. humilus Wieg.); red maple, Acer rubrun L. `Red Sunset'; border forsythia, Forsythia ×intermedia Zab. `Sunrise'; apple, Malus ×domestica Borkh. `McIntosh'; river birch, Betula nigra L.]. Uniform shoot explants were oriented vertically or horizontally in three vessel types (60-ml glass culture tubes, 200-ml glass baby food jars, and 350-ml polypropylene GA7 vessels) with and without a Parafilm seal. Visual density per explant obtained by image analysis was increased in larger vessel types, and significantly more shoots were produced from horizontally placed explants. Closure treatments influenced microshoot quality, but trends were species specific. Overall, horizontal explant orientation in larger vessels wthout parafilm maximized shoot response for most of the species studied. In vitro rooting of microcuttings was significantly enhanced in larger vessels.

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Limited soil nitrogen (N) availability is a common problem in organic vegetable production that often necessitates additional N fertilization. The increasing use of drip irrigation has created a demand for liquid organic fertilizers that can be applied with irrigation. The N availability of three liquid organic fertilizers was evaluated in an incubation study and a greenhouse bioassay. Phytamin 801 contained fishery wastes and seabird guano, while Phytamin 421 and Biolyzer were formulated from plant materials. The fertilizers ranged from 26 to 60 g·kg−1 N, 8% to 21% of which was associated with particulate matter large enough to potentially be removed by drip irrigation system filtration. The fertilizers were incubated aerobically in two organically managed soils at constant moisture at 15 and 25 °C, and sampled for mineral N concentration after 1, 2, and 4 weeks. In the greenhouse study, these fertilizers and an inorganic fertilizer (ammonium sulfate) were applied to pots of the two organically managed soils with established fescue (Festuca arundinacea) turf; the N content of clippings was compared with that from unfertilized pots after 2 and 4 weeks of growth. Across soils and incubation temperatures, the N availability from Phytamin 801 ranged from 79% to 93% of the initial N content after 1 week, and 83% to 99% after 4 weeks. The plant-based fertilizers had significantly lower N availability, but after 4 weeks, had 48% to 92% of initial N in mineral form. Soil and incubation temperature had modest but significant effects on fertilizer N availability. Nitrification was rapid, with >90% of mineral N in nitrate form after 1 week of incubation at 25 °C, or 2 weeks at 15 °C. N recovery in fescue clippings 4 weeks after application averaged 60%, 38%, and 36% of initial N content for Phytamin 801, Phytamin 421, and Biolyzer, respectively, equivalent to or better than the N recovery from ammonium sulfate.

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Abstract

In the paper by O. E. Smith, N. C. Welch, and T. M. Little in J. Amer. Soc. Hort Sci. 98(6):529-533, November 1973, the following changes should be made on page 529, column 2, lines 28 and 35:

Line 28: change “transferred to a 1/15 M” to read “transferred to a 20-fold dilution of a 1/15 M”

Line 35: change “of the pH 7.0 phosphate” to read “of the pH 7.0 dilute phosphate”

If the buffer is used at 1/15 molar, the roots of the young plants will be injured due to the high osmotic strength of the buffer.

Open Access

Abstract

Seed weight in lettuce was more important than seed width or thickness in predicting vigor. An air column separator was an effective way to separate seeds varying in weight. A biological assay called the slant test was developed to test vigor. The average root length after 3 days was used as a measure of vigor.

Open Access

Mentha longifolia, a wild relative of the polyploid, cultivated Mentha (mint) species, was evaluated as a potential model system for genetic research relevant to the cultivated mints. Fourteen Mentha longifolia accessions maintained by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service, National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR), were highly diverse with respect to geographic origin, oil composition, verticillium wilt resistance, aspects of morphology, and molecular marker polymorphism. Accession CMEN 584 was the only carvone chemotype, while CMEN 682 was the only accession with high menthol content. Trans-piperitone oxide was the primary oil component of accessions CMEN 17 and CMEN 18, while pulegone was most abundant in CMEN 20, CMEN 500, CMEN 501, and CMEN 585. Four accessions—CMEN 585, CMEN 17, CMEN 501, and CMEN 81—were consistently resistant to verticillium wilt, while CMEN 584 and CMEN 516 were highly susceptible. Pairwise similarity coefficients were calculated and a UPGMA (unweighted pair-group analysis) tree was constructed on the basis of 63 informative randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker bands. CMEN 585 and CMEN 584 shared the greatest number of bands (16), and formed a distinct cluster in the UPGMA tree. Seven pairs of accessions had no bands in common, emphasizing the high degree of molecular diversity represented by these accessions. The favorable features of diploid (2n = 2x = 24) genome constitution, comparatively small genome size (400 to 500 Mb), self-fertility, fecundity, and diversity with respect to economically relevant traits, contribute to M. longifolia's potential usefulness as a model system for the cultivated mints. As a perennial species amenable to vegetative propagation, M. longifolia's spectrum of susceptibility/resistance to an important vascular wilt disease encourages its further evaluation as a system for broader studies of plant–microbe interactions and disease resistance mechanisms.

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