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- Author or Editor: M.E. Garcia x
Hardiness testing of the wood of deciduous fruit trees has been conducted using a variety of techniques. In our studies, the objective was to determine an efficient method of determining freezing injury for apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) wood. We tested 1-year old wood of two cultivars: Liberty and RedMax. The wood was tested over the course of 2 years (1998 and 1999). Collection began in the late fall and continued throughout the winter (until it was determined full hardiness had been achieved) and then again in the early spring. The wood was cut into 1-cm sections and frozen. The artificial freezing was conducted in an ethanol bath, with the temperature lowered at 5 °C/h. Samples were removed in 3-min intervals. After freezing, the wood was acclimated to 4 °C for 12 h. Three tests were conducted to determine the hardiness/injury to the tissues. The tests used were: discoloration, callus growth and vital staining (with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride). This was a split block design with samples collected randomly from each tree. Four replicates (12 trees) of each cultivar were tested. Results showed that the callus test predicted the same LT50 as the other two tests, discoloration and vital staining. Discoloration was not easy to differentiate and was the most time-consuming. The callus grown by the apple wood was easily formed and distinguished. The callus test does not require the tetrazolium stain; therefore, one less step was needed in comparison to the vital staining test. This reduced testing time by over 6 h.
AGRI 1203 “Introduction to Plant Sciences” is a college core requirement for students in the College of Agricultural, Food, and Life Sciences. One of the objectives is accomplished in part by writing a scientific research-review paper (term paper) on a subject of the student's interest. After several semesters of assigning the term paper, it was apparent that students had extensive variation in experience and skills in writing and documenting references. A SOLO was created so that students could develop and practice techniques in reading, understanding, summarizing, and documenting references in a research paper. The SOLO is a self-instructional exercise consisting of three parts: l) a statement of learning objectives, 2) activities on how to achieve the objectives; and 3) exercises to measure mastery level of the exercise's objectives. The SOLO and student and instructor evaluations of the SOLO will be presented and discussed in the poster.
The effects of shading and leaf age on the production of foliar phenolics of two apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars, `Liberty' and `Red Rome Beauty', were studied. Potted trees were grown outdoors and their leaves tagged weekly when they reached 20 mm in length. This process continued for the duration of the experiment. At 3 weeks from budbreak, the trees were placed in three shade treatments: 0% shade (control), 60% shade, and 90% shade. After 5 weeks, the leaves were collected for phenolic assay. Specific leaf weight (SLW) was determined from the leaf below the tagged leaf. Shade significantly affected the total phenolic content. Leaves in 0% shade had the highest levels of total phenolics. The phenolic content decreased with increasing shade, with trees in 90% shade having a 72% reduction in total phenolics. There was a significant shade by leaf age interaction. There was a decrease in total phenolic content with increasing leaf age except for those leaves whose development occurred before the experiment was started. The 1-week-old leaf had the highest phenolic content, while 4-week-old leaf had the lowest amount. The 5- and 6-week-old leaves that had been tagged prior to the onset of the shade treatments has similar phenolic content in all treatment. SLW significantly decreased with increasing shade and increased with leaf age. Results of this study indicate that light and leaf developmental stage are important factors in the total foliar phenolic content, but, once phenolics are synthesized, shading does not affect their content.
Apple scab, a fungal disease caused by Venturia inaequalis, is considered the most important disease of apple worldwide. The disease can be devastating, causing reduction in yield or making the apples unfit for the market. Currently, the production of marketable fruit from scab susceptible cultivars depends on the repeated applications of fungicides. Scab-resistant apple cultivars, which are genetically immune to apple scab, can offer a biological alternative to fungicide use. `Liberty,' was bred for immunity to apple scab; however, it is not immune to other apple diseases and pests. Research has been conducted during a 3-year project (1996–1998) to determine whether reduced fungicide programs adversely affect overall tree vigor, productivity, and fruit quality. Data collected include tree vigor (TCSA and time of leaf abscission), tree productivity (YE), and fruit quality (fruit firmness and disorders during storage). Results indicate no significant differences between the two treatments (reduced fungicide and no fungicide application) in most of the parameters measured. Based on fruit that were harvested and graded to commercial standards, the estimated gross monetary value of the crop does not show difference between treatments. These results could translate into an economic advantage for growers when one factors in the savings in fungicide purchases. In addition, there are also health and environmental advantages to reduced fungicide usage.
Orchards established on weathered, acidic mineral soils in the Ozark Highlands must be managed to meet tree nutritional requirements. However, a common characteristic of Ozark Highland soils is a relatively low soil organic matter (SOM) concentration, a condition that can have detrimental effects on orchard productivity. Organic orchard management poses specific challenges to managing competitive under-tree vegetation and supplying appropriate supplemental nutrition to maintain tree growth and cropping. In Mar. 2006, an experimental apple orchard was established to evaluate the effects of under tree, in-row groundcover management system (i.e., shredded paper, wood chips, municipal green compost, and mow-blow), and nutrient source (i.e., non-fertilized control, composted poultry litter, and pelletized organic commercial fertilizer) on SOM, carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) concentration, and soil C and N sequestration over time in an organically managed orchard in the Ozark Highlands region of northwest Arkansas. Soil organic matter, total C, and total N concentrations (soil weight basis) and contents (area basis) in the top 7.5 cm increased in all groundcover management systems from 2006 to 2011. The greatest differences were observed with municipal green compost treatments. Significant interactions between groundcover management treatment and nutrient source were only observed for SOM concentration, whereas nutrient source did not affect total C and total N concentrations or contents. Soil C sequestration rates were 0.9, 1.0, and 2.8 Mg·ha−1 per year under the shredded paper, wood chip, and green compost treatments, respectively, whereas total C content did not change over time under the mow-blow treatment. The green compost treatment was the only treatment that had significant total N sequestration occur (0.25 Mg nitrogen/ha/year). Results of this study indicate that organic cultural methods can significantly augment near-surface soil C and N contents, which will likely increase productivity, of apple orchards in the Ozark Highlands over a relatively short period time after establishment. This study has implications for orchards in similar soils or environmental circumstance and for both organic and conventional management systems.
Classic-type eggplant fruits collected at the packing line were stored at 21C to evaluate respiration, weight loss, and quality characteristics. Fruits were divided on two groups. One group was inoculated with Phytophthora capsici. Fruit size, postharvest changes in color, compositional characteristics, CO2 production, weight loss, and spread area of the disease were monitored daily. Fruit size at harvest ranged between 15 to 17 cm of longitude and 7 to 9 cm of diameter. Seventy two hours after inoculation (HAI) of the fruits with P. capsici, a significant increase on respiration was detected even before the fungus was visually present. After 144 HAI, respiration on infected fruits reached 49 ml CO2/kg per h, while healthy fruits achieved only 15.7 ml CO2/kg per h, reducing quality and shelf-life on rotten fruits. Firmness, titratable acidity, and pH showed a significant difference between healthy and infected fruits. pH on infected fruits change from 4.96 after 96 HAI to 6.91 after 144 HAI, while healthy fruits did not change in the same period. Results were closely related with time after inoculation. Forty-eight HAI, the surface affected was of 2.7 cm by 1.8 cm; while 168 HAI, the affected surface area increased to 12.2 cm by 13.4 cm, representing damage above 60% of the total surface of the fruit.
Carambola fruit collected at the dark-green, light-green, color-break, and ripe stages were evaluated during storage at 21C for up to 10 days. Fruit size, weight, postharvest changes in color, compositional characteristics, CO2 production, ethylene evolution, and weight loss were monitored daily. Fruit size ranged between 78 to 82 mm. Peel color luminosity and chroma values increased with maturity stage, while hue values decreased. However, hue and chroma values of the four ripening stages tended to decrease with storage time. Weight loss and fruit flesh firmness were both affected by storage time and ripening stage, and ranged among the maturity stages from 5.1% to 6.7% and from 2.11 to 0.94 kg-f, respectively. On dark-green fruit, total soluble solids and titratable acidity were 4.89° Brix and 0.808%, respectively. Fruit collected at the ripe stage presented values of 6.7° Brix and 0.412% titratable acidity. None of the fruit among maturity stages changed significantly during storage on these parameters. Carbon dioxide production increased from 6.06 to 21.83 ml CO2/kg-h during storage time among maturity stages and always was highest on ripe fruit. Fruit harvested at the color-break and ripe stages produced ethylene after 9 and 6 days, respectively, and ranged from 1.15 to 3.92 μl·kg–1·h–1.
Sinaloa tomato growers continuously evaluate new varieties, looking for better quality and long shelf life. Mutant fruit with the genes rin and nor offers both possibilities when crossed with normal fruit. Our study presents results of 16 tomato hybrid lines harvested from the field at the “turning” stage and stored under simulated marketing conditions (20°C and 80% RH). Twelve experimental hybrids were from the rin type, one from the nor type, two commercial hybrids were normal, and one commercial line from the rin type. Sampling was done every 2 days up to 16 days. Evaluations done included physical, chemical, and physiological determinations. Line S69 (nor type) had higher firmness compared to the others, while normal lines (S121 and S123) were the softest. S69 was the only hybrid that did not completed a red external color development. Experimental lines of the rin type presented acceptable development of red color, however, only normal lines (S121 and S123) reached the characteristic red color of tomato. Lines of the rin type (S172 and S200) lost more weight during marketing than normal ones. Pulp pH was higher on the experimental rin lines than on the commercial ones (BR84, S121 and S123). Not difference on the sugar: acid ratio among the lines was found. Only normal lines showed a climateric CO2 and C2H4 peak.
Sexual seeds of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) usually emerge poorly under high-temperature conditions (> 25 C). A seedling vigor study was conducted during the warm season (1988-89) in Lima, Peru, and the results of two representative tests. are reported. Two presowing treatments and a rinsed control were compared for seedlingstand establishment in a screenhouse with old (>18 months) and new (> 6 months) sexual seeds of three potato crosses. The treatments consisted of soaking the seed in solutions of KN03 + K3P04 at – 1.0 MPa (priming) and gibberellic acid at 1500 ppm (GA1500). Seedling vigor was lower at 34C (February test) than at 29C (November test). In both tests, overall seedling performance was highest in seed of the cross Atlantic × LT-7. Old seed was more vigorous than new seed, particularly when the crosses Atzimba × R128.6 (B2) and Serrana × LT-7 (Cl) were tested at 34C. Priming increased percentage of early (10 days) emergence over the other treatments at 34C and increased seedling dry weight in both tests. GA1500 increased percentage of final (17 days) emergence in crosses B2 and Cl, as compared to rinsing, except at 29C, where there were no significant differences in old seed. For sowing true potato seed at high temperature, a) the genotype is a crucial factor, b) sufficient seed storage (> 18 months) may be essential, and c) seed priming is more effective than the standard GA1500 treatment.
The leaf phenolic content of 25 Malus species obtained from the National Germplasm Repository was evaluated. Two methods were utilized for determination of phenolic quantity and form. Total dihydroxy phenolic content was determined by spectrophotometric method using diphenlboric acid 2 aminoethyl ester as the reagent. These phenolics were quantified by using HPLC. Differences in phenolic quantity and type among the species were observed. This variation will be discussed in relation to apple–insect interactions.