A comparison was made among 16 native North American Vitis species and Vitis vinifera L. ('Carignane') grown in the San Joaquin Valley of California with or without irrigation over 2 years. Predawn water potential (ΨPD), predawn leaf osmotic potential (Ψπ), midday leaf (Ψl), and stem water potential (Ψstem), stomatal conductance (gs), net CO2 assimilation rate (A), and intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE) were measured on five dates during the growing season the first year of the study and pruning weights were evaluated both years. Net gas exchange and water potential components taken on the last measurement date in 1992 and pruning weights of the nonirrigated species were less (or more negative for Ψ components) than those of the irrigated vines. The 17 Vitis species were ranked according to their relative drought tolerance based upon their performance without irrigation and when compared to their irrigated cohort. The Vitis species considered most drought tolerant were V. californica, V. champinii, V. doaniana, V. longii, V. girdiana, and V. arizonica. Those six species generally had high values of A, gs, and pruning weights and more favorable vine water status at the end of the study than the other species when grown without irrigation. The drought-induced reductions in the measured parameters also were less for those species when compared to their irrigated cohorts. The least drought tolerant species were, V. berlandieri, V. cinerea, V. lincecumii, V. riparia, and V. solonis. The drought-tolerant rankings were generally associated with the species' native habitat and probable soil water availability.
M. Padgett-Johnson, L.E. Williams, and M.A. Walker
Linda J. Walker, R.B. Rogers, and M.A.L. Smith
In vitro cell cultures of huckleberry and bilberry are sources of phytochemicals for use as food colorants and bioactive chemopreventives. Shoot cultures provide a convenient, presterile source of explants for production of callus rich in extractable pigments or other chemicals. Efficient callus formation only occurs with good-quality shoots. In this study, liquid and gelled support systems were compared in terms of their effect on shoot growth. Gellan gum-based support resulted in excellent shoot proliferation and suitable shoot length for huckleberry cultures, whereas bilberry performed slightly better on agar and agar/gellan gum support. Bilberry had a more-rapid growth rate than huckleberry. Hyperhydricity was found with the use of rafts for both species. These shoot cultures have been used as vegetative explants for callus, and have produced vivid anthocyanins in solution cultures.
M. Andrew Walker, Lloyd A. Lider, Austin C. Goheen, and Harold P. Olmo
Mark A. Walker, Dale M. Smith, K. Peter Pauls, and Bryan D. McKersie
The chilling tolerance of commercial Lycopersicon esculentum cultivars (H2653, H722), Solanum lycopersicoides, an F1 hybrid of S. lycopersicoides × Sub-Arctic Maxi, and 25 BC2F2 lines of L. hirsutum × H722 (backcrossed twice to H722) was evaluated using a chlorophyll fluorescence assay. The ratio of the initial to the peak fluorescence (Fo: Fp) measured from fully expanded leaves was chosen as an indicator of plant health. Chilling induced an increase in Fo: Fp that was correlated with the sensitivity of the plant to low-temperature stress. Values of Fo: Fp remained low for cold-treated S. lycopersicoides and the F1 hybrid, which showed few symptoms of chilling-related damage, whereas the commercial cultivars, which were essentially intolerant to low temperatures, had large increases in Fo: Fp. A full range of Fo: Fp values was measured in the 25 BC2F2 lines, indicating that some chilling tolerance from the L. hirsutum parent was expressed by plants in these populations.
Summaira Riaz, Alan C. Tenscher, Brady P. Smith, Daniel A. Ng, and M. Andrew Walker
The North American muscadine grape (Muscadinia rotundifolia Small) is a valuable source of resistance to powdery mildew [Uncinula necator (Schw.) Burr], root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne Goeldi), dagger nematode (Xiphinema index Thorne and Allen), grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch), and Pierce's disease (Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al.). Efforts to breed muscadine grapes commenced in the early 1900s and have generated a large number of cultivars and a limited number of hybrids with Vitis vinifera L. and other Vitis L. species. Collections of this germplasm are currently maintained with accession identity based on declared identity when collected, breeding records, and comparisons of morphological traits. This study reports on the first use of DNA-based simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker profiles to authenticate M. rotundifolia cultivars and hybrids. A total of 57 accessions [39 M. rotundifolia cultivars, 3 V. vinifera cultivars, 3 Vitis spp. hybrids, and 12 V. vinifera × M. rotundifolia (VR) hybrids] from collections at the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Clonal Germplasm Repository and the University of California (Davis) Department of Viticulture and Enology were analyzed with 14 SSR markers. The fingerprint profiles were used to verify published breeding records of 31 M. rotundifolia cultivars and hybrids by comparing the shared alleles of parents and progeny. Marker data indicated that four cultivars were incorrectly identified; their alleles did not match respective parent/progeny relationships at more than five loci. Two M. rotundifolia accessions had the same fingerprint profile as a third accession at all 14 markers, implicating a likely planting error. The M. rotundifolia cultivars exhibited 88 unique alleles that were not present in a database of more than 600 V. vinifera cultivars.
Joyce G. Latimer, Reuben B. Beverly, Carol D. Robacker, Orville M. Lindstrom, S. Kristine Braman, Ronald D. Oetting, Denise L. Olson, Paul A. Thomas, Jerry T. Walker, Beverly Sparks, John M. Ruter, Wojciech Florkowski, Melvin P. Garber, and William G. Hudson
Optimizing growing conditions and, thereby, plant growth reduces the susceptibility of plants to many disease and insect pest problems. Educating lawn or landscape management professionals and homeowners about plant health management reduces the need for chemical intervention. Pesticides combined with N and P fertilizers contribute to water pollution problems in urban areas; thus, it is important to manage the amount, timing, and placement of chemicals and fertilizers. To educate consumers applying pesticides and fertilizers in residential gardens, we must educate the sales representatives and others who interact most closely with consumers. Evidence suggests that knowledge about the effects of chemicals is limited and that warning labels are not read or are ignored. Integrated pest management (IPM) offers alternatives to conventional chemical treatments, but such methods are not used commonly because of their relatively high cost and their uncertain impact on pests. Pest detection methods and using pest-resistant plants in landscapes are simple and, in many cases, readily available approaches to reducing the dependence on chemical use. Research on effective, low-cost IPM methods is essential if chemical use in landscape management is to decrease. Current impediments to reducing the pollution potential of chemicals used in the landscape include the limited number of easily implemented, reliable, and cost-effective alternative pest control methods; underfunding of research on development of alternative pest control measures; limited knowledge of commercial operators, chemical and nursery sales representatives, landscape architects, and the general public concerning available alternatives; reluctance of the nursery industry to produce, and of the landscape architects to specify the use of, pest-resistant plant materials; lack of economic or regulatory incentive for professionals to implement alternatives; inadequate funding for education on the benefits of decreased chemical use; and the necessity of changing consumer definition of unacceptable plant damage. We need to teach homeowners and professionals how to manage irrigation to optimize plant growth; use sound IPM practices for reducing disease, weed, and insect problems; and minimize pollution hazards from fertilizers and pesticides.
Joyce G. Latimer, Reuben B. Beverly, Carol D. Robacker, Orville M. Lindstrom, Ronald D. Oetting, Denise L. Olson, S. Kristine Braman, Paul A. Thomas, John R. Allison, Wojciech Florkowski, John M. Ruter, Jerry T. Walker, Melvin P. Garber, and William G. Hudson
Pesticides have been the primary method of pest control for years, and growers depend on them to control insect and disease-causing pests effectively and economically. However, opportunities for reducing the potential pollution arising from the use of pesticides and fertilizers in environmental horticulture are excellent. Greenhouse, nursery, and sod producers are using many of the scouting and cultural practices recommended for reducing the outbreak potential and severity of disease and insect problems. Growers are receptive to alternatives to conventional pesticides, and many already use biorational insecticides. Future research should focus on increasing the effectiveness and availability of these alternatives. Optimizing growing conditions, and thereby plant health, reduces the susceptibility of plants to many disease and insect pest problems. Impediments to reducing the use of conventional pesticides and fertilizers in the environmental horticulture industry include 1) lack of easily implemented, reliable, and cost-effective alternative pest control methods; 2) inadequate funding for research to develop alternatives; 3) lack of sufficient educational or resource information for users on the availability of alternatives; 4) insufficient funding for educating users on implementing alternatives; 5) lack of economic or regulatory incentive for growers to implement alternatives; and 6) limited consumer acceptance of aesthetic damage to plants. Research and broadly defined educational efforts will help alleviate these impediments to reducing potential pollution by the environmental horticulture industry.