Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 8 of 8 items for

  • Author or Editor: M.A. Norton x
Clear All Modify Search
Authors: and

A method has been developed for micropropagation of the difficult-to-root winegrape cultivar `Norton' (Vitis aestivalis). Plants were established in vitro from axillary bud cuttings of field-grown plants. Four levels of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and three levels of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) were tested in a factorial arrangement for their effectiveness in promoting multiplication of shoots from single-node explants. Three levels of NAA and two concentrations of Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium were tested for their effectiveness in promoting rooting of shoot tips. The greatest number of shoots per axillary bud in combination with the greatest shoot length were produced with 4 μmol·L-1 [0.90 mg·L-1 (ppm)] BA. NAA had no effect on shoot multiplication. NAA was not required for in vitro rooting. All rooted plants survived the transition to soil.

Full access
Authors: and

Chimeral `Thornless Evergreen' (CTE), (Rubus laciniatus Willd.) somaclones selected in 1983 and field planted in 1985 were reexamined in 1992 for various vegetative and reproductive characteristics. Two major types of thornless (prickle-free) plants, intermediate-sized (`UI 6-6' = `Everthornless') and dwarf (`UI 6-4'), originally selected from a chimeral thornless parent plant, were compared with thorny plants. The intermediate and dwarf somaclones have maintained their distinctive habits over 7 years' growth in the field, indicating that their growth habits are stable and not a transient effect of tissue culture. Although the thornless somaclones remained thornless, the degree and type of prickle-like structures varies considerably, indicating that the thornless gene (S te) does not entirely suppress the production of prickles, but apparently alters their development. Increasing suppression was directly related to increasing dwarfism, suggesting a link between thornlessness and internode length.

Free access
Authors: and

Somatic embryogenesis in sweetpotato is highly genotype dependent. Unfortunately, many desirable agronomic varieties do not produce embryos capable of germination when published protocols are followed. Using one responsive and three recalcitrant cultivars, we examined the effect on embryogenesis of auxin, nitrogen, and carbon; explant source; and desiccation. All cultivars formed proembryonic masses on medium supplemented with either 2,4-D or picloram; picloram favored the growth of nonembryogenic callus. Twenty mm each of ammonium and nitrate promoted the best proembryo formation in all cultivars. Ammonium was essential for embryogenesis; replacing ammonium with proline, glutamine, asparagine, glycine, or casein hydrolysate resulted in poor or no proembryo formation. More proembryos formed on medium supplemented with sucrose than with glucose, fructose, or maltose. Leaf discs from the first fully expanded leaf produced more embryos than younger leaves for all cultivars; discs taken from the lamina produced more embryos than discs including portions of the midrib. Proembryos matured and germinated only after at least 3 weeks on medium containing 5% w/v polyethylene glycol 8000, greater than 3.3 mm myo-inositol, and 1 or 10 μm abscisic acid. More whole plants were obtained from the responsive cultivar Jewel than from the recalcitrant genotypes.

Free access

Rubus laciniatus Willd. `Thornless Evergreen' (TE) is a chimeral blackberry with a thornless epidermis that overlies a genetically thorny interior. Most canes of TE produce leaves with 5 finely cut (lacinate) leaflets. Occasionally, canes appear which produce leaves with entire leaflets. Genetically pure thornless plants were regenerated from epidermal cells of chimeral TE with lacinate leaves. These regenerants exhibited somaclonal variation for growth habit, degree of thornlessness, and fruitfulness. All had lacinate leaves. When moved to the field, some of these regenerants produced canes with entire leaflets.

To examine the stability of the entire leaflet characteristic, plants were regenerated from lacinate leaves and entire leaves of both dwarf and normal pure thornless TE regenerants. Regenerants were rooted, moved to soil, and grown in the greenhouse for observation. Stability of this characteristic will be discussed.

Free access

To study the causes of low germinability in dried blackberry seeds, seeds harvested from fresh `Thornless Evergreen' (TE) blackberry (Rubus laciniatus Willd.) were either air-dried (12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 96, or 120 hours) or explanted directly onto growth-regulator-free medium after bleach disinfestation. Seeds were either cut in half before explanting or kept intact. None of the intact seeds germinated. Fewer of the halved seeds dried 12 hours or more germinated than control (fresh moist) seeds (42.7% and 54.5%, respectively). Germination decreased to <12% following >48 hours of air-drying. In a separate study, fresh seeds of TE and `Navaho' were either dried as described or held in sealed petri dishes on moist filter paper (moist treatment) for up to 60 hours. After 60 hours, germination of dried seeds of both cultivars had decreased significantly; there was no significant change in germination percentage for moist seeds. Since moist halved seeds germinated well and dried halved seeds did not, the inability of dried blackberry seeds to germinate is due to more factors than just the hard seedcoat typical of the genus.

Free access

Abstract

‘AU-Roadside’ is a new plum cultivar developed by the Dept. of Horticulture, Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn Univ., for growing in areas where chilling of 700 hr of temperature below 7°C occurs. ‘AU-Roadside’ has produced high yields of excellent quality fruit where certain fruit problems and diseases occur.

Open Access

Abstract

Table beet (Beta vulgaris L.) ‘Ruby Queen’ seeds were either germinated in aerated water till radicle emergence or osmoconditioned (OC) in –1.2 MPa solutions of polyethylene glycol 6000 or MgSO4 for 7 days at 15°C. Seeds were sown in soil in growth chambers, infested with Pythium spp., and damping-off incidence was evaluated after 14 days. Disease incidence was reduced, compared to dry sown seeds, as a result of presowing treatments. High populations of bacteria (106–108 CFU/ml of solution) developed during the aerated soak, which protected seeds from Pythium damping-off. Seed leaching or osmoconditioning did not decrease susceptibility to damping-off in the absence of high seed bacterial populations. The fluid drilling gel was studied as a delivery system for chemical fungicides. Damping-off in dry-sown seed was reduced by incorporating thiram into a hydroxyethyl cellulose (Natrosol 250 HHW) gel. Gel alone had no effect on damping-off. In field studies, only slight improvements in stand were attributed to the incorporation of thiram in presowing treatments. Fungicide dressing of dry seed resulted in a large improvement in emergence. All presowing treatments had greater field emergence than dry-sown seeds in the absence of thiram, which was attributed to bacterial protection from damping-off.

Open Access

Hand thinning is a necessary and costly management practice in peach (Prunus persica) production. Stone fruit producers are finding it increasingly difficult to find a workforce to manually thin fruit crops, and the cost of farm labor is increasing. A new “hybrid” string thinner prototype designed to adjust crop load in vase or angled tree canopies was evaluated in processing and fresh fruit plantings in varying production systems in four U.S. growing regions in 2009. Data were uniformly collected across regions to determine blossom removal rate, fruit set, labor required for follow-up green fruit hand thinning, fruit size distribution at harvest, yield, and economic impact. String thinner trials with the variable tree forms demonstrated reduced labor costs compared with hand-thinned controls and increased crop value due to a larger distribution of fruit in marketable and higher market value sizes. Blossom removal ranged from 17% to 56%, hand thinning requirement was reduced by 19% to 100%, and fruit yield and size distribution improved in at least one string-thinning treatment per experiment. Net economic impact at optimum tractor and spindle speeds was $462 to $1490 and $264 to $934 per acre for processing and fresh market peaches, respectively. Case study interviews of growers who thinned a total of 154 acres indicated that commercial adoption of string-thinning technology would likely have positive impacts on the work place environment.

Full access