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  • Author or Editor: M.A. Dirr x
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Cold hardiness levels of six cultivars of Chinese elm (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.), `Select 380', `Orange Ribbon 740', `Emerald Isle', `Emerald Vase', `Drake', and `King's Choice', were determined over eight sample dates from 31 Aug. 1988 to 16 May 1989 and for `Emerald Vase' and `Drake', over three dates from 14 Feb. 1988 to 25 Apr. 1988. All cultivars tested achieved a maximum cold hardiness in December and January of – 21 to – 24C, except `King's Choice', which survived exposure to at least – 30C. `Emerald Isle' and `Emerald Vase' acclimated earlier (both – 9C on 31 Aug.) and reacclimated later (– 6 and – 9C, respectively, on 16 May) than other cultivars tested. `Emerald Vase' and `Drake' exhibited similar cold hardiness levels over the two years tested.

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Plants of Salix alba `Britzensis' and Salix chaenomeloides were planted on 30, 60 or 90 cm centers in spring, 1992 and plants of Buddleia davidii `Black Knight' were planted at densities of approximately 45, 80, or 165 cm centers in fall, 1991. Stems of Buddleia were harvested in the summer and fall of 1992 and those of Salix were harvested in the winter of 1993. The number of stems/plant decreased but the number of stems/m2 increased with increasing plant density in all species. The stems of Salix alba `Britzensis' were significantly longer in the highest plant density.

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Abstract

Timing and rate of acclimation and maximum low-temperature survival of eight woody taxa were determined over six sample dates from 25 Aug. 1987 to 25 Apr. 1988. Four cultivars of Acer rubrum L. (red maple) acclimated at different rates and attained different levels of midwinter cold hardiness. ‘Red Sunset’ (RS) and ‘October Glory’ (OG), northern selections, acclimated at faster rates and attained greater degrees of cold hardiness than ‘Journalism Psychology’ (JP) and ‘Upright Crown’ (UC) selected from southern seed sources. Maximum cold hardiness levels were −8C (JP), −23C (UC), −29C (RS), and −29C (OG). Amelanchier arborea (Michx. f.) Fern, (downy serviceberry) and Quercus coccinea Muenchh. (scarlet oak) developed midwinter hardiness of less than −29C and −20C, respectively. Illicium floridanum Ellis (Florida anise) and Illicium parviflorum Michx. (small anise) developed −26C and −20C midwinter hardiness, respectively. According to our data, woody taxa should be evaluated for timing and rates of acclimation and low-temperature tolerances, since performance will vary from one geographic area to another, depending on photoperiod, the timing of fall freezes, and midwinter temperatures.

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The effects of late summer, fall, and winter pruning on the cold hardiness of × Cupressocyparis leylandii (A.B. Jacks. and Dallim.) Dallim. and A.B. Jacks. `Hag gerston Gray' (Leyland cypress) and Lagerstroemia L. `Natchez' (crape myrtle) were determined. Pruning in late summer through early winter significantly reduced the cold hardiness of both taxa. The maximum difference in cold hardiness between pruned trees and controls for × Cupressocyparis leylandii `Haggerston Gray' in October, December, January, and February was 3, 3, 2, and 6C, respectively. The maximum difference in cold hardiness between pruned plants and controls for Lagerstroemia `Natchez' in December, January, and February was 3, 4, and 2C, respectively. Early spring pruning of Leyland cypress and late winter or early spring pruning of crape myrtle are suggested from these data.

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Flowering evergreen shrubs that are compact and resistant to pests are in great demand in the nursery and landscape industries. The genus Abelia contains 30 species that vary in many traits including flower color, growth habit, and hardiness. Abelia × grandiflora (Andre) Rehd. and its cultivars are the most widely grown Abelia taxa and are characterized by pest resistance, an abundance of pinkish white flowers, long flowering period, and glossy evergreen foliage. Interspecific hybridization among Abelia × grandiflora, its cultivars, and other species in the genus Abelia offer the potential for new cultivars; however, seed germination within the genus has been described as slow and inconsistent. Experiments were conducted to test procedures to increase germination percentages and rates. Each Abelia seed is enclosed in a leathery achene. The effect of achene removal was examined in combination with cold, moist stratification for 60 days at 4 °C, immersion in 100 ppm gibberellic acid for 24 h, and no treatment. Treatments were replicated five times with 15 seeds per replication. Seeds were sown on sphagnum peat, and grown under mist in the greenhouse. Weekly germination counts were recorded for 8 weeks. Seeds with attached achenes germinated at a significantly higher percentage than those without achenes. Cold, moist stratification and gibberellic acid treatments were not significantly different than the control. No significant differences were found within the achene treatments for relative rate of emergence, but significant differences were found for the time until 90% of final emergence was reached.

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The genus Abelia contains ≈30 species, but A. × grandiflora, its cultivars, and A. `Edward Goucher' are the primary taxa grown. The nursery industry has stated that Abelia R. Br. taxa are important economically, and new selections or cultivars with increased cold hardiness, richer pink-rose flower colors, unique foliage colors, and compact habits are desired. Breeding and selection work in the genus is very limited due in part to limited access to germplasm. Pollen storage enables breeders to cross taxa with incongruent flowering cycles, save time and resources by eliminating the need to grow vast amounts of plant material, and incorporate otherwise unavailable germplasm into a breeding program. An experiment was conducted to determine the optimum levels of temperature and humidity for the long-term storage of A. chinensis and A. × grandiflora `Golden Glow' pollen. Temperature and humidity levels were analyzed by incubating undesiccated pollen of a given taxon at four humidity levels (0%, 50%, 80%, and 100%) for 72 h at 5 °C. Following incubation, the pollen was stored in glass vials at each of the following temperatures: 5, -20, and -70 °C. All combinations of temperature and humidity were tested. Pollen viability was assessed after 60 days by in vivo germination tests on styles. Abelia chinensis pollen germinated following storage at all temperature and humidity levels. Pollen of A. × grandiflora `Golden Glow' pollen germinated following all treatments except storage at -20 °C.

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Cooling treatments of 2, 4, and 6C/hour or warming at 25, 4, or 0C influenced the cold hardiness estimates of x Cupressocyparis leylandii (A.B. Jacks. and Dallim.) Dallim. and A.B. Jacks. (Leyland cypress), Lagerstroemia indica L. (crape myrtle), and Photinia ×fraseri Dress `Birmingham' (redtip photinia) at four times during the year. New growth from all taxa, especially spring growth, was injured or killed at higher temperatures by the fastest cooling rate and/or by warming at 25C. Cold hardiness of Leyland cypress was unaffected by the cooling and warming treatments. Crape myrtle had a significantly higher lowest survival temperature (LST) when warmed at 25C than at 4 or 0C. Photinia leaves and stems cooled at 6C/hour or warmed at 25C generally resulted in a higher LST than those cooled more slowly or warmed at lower temperatures. Cooling rates of 14C/hour and warming at 0 to 4C should be used in freeze tests with Leyland cypress and crape myrtle. For leaves and stems of photinia, 2C/hour cooling and warming at 0 to 4C should be used.

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The effects of timing of pruning in relation to cold hardiness of X Cupressocyparis leylandii (A. B. Jacks. and Dallim.) Dallim. and A. B. Jacks. `Haggerston Grey' and Lagerstroemia L. `Natchez' were evaluated on 6 test dates from August 1989 to March 1990. Pruning treatments decreased the cold hardiness of both taxa compared to unpruned controls on 5 test dates. Cold tolerance of `Haggerston Grey' decreased for 4 to 5 months following the August and October pruning compared to the unpruned controls. `Haggerston Grey's cold tolerance were reduced by 6C in February. October and December pruning of `Natchez' reduced cold hardiness by 4C in January. However, cold hardiness of January and February pruning treatments was similar to unpruned controls. In general, the data indicated that plants of `Haggerston Grey' pruned in October through February were less cold hardy than plants pruned in August. Ideally, `Natchez' crape myrtle should be pruned in late winter.

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The effects of timing of pruning in relation to cold hardiness of X Cupressocyparis leylandii (A. B. Jacks. and Dallim.) Dallim. and A. B. Jacks. `Haggerston Grey' and Lagerstroemia L. `Natchez' were evaluated on 6 test dates from August 1989 to March 1990. Pruning treatments decreased the cold hardiness of both taxa compared to unpruned controls on 5 test dates. Cold tolerance of `Haggerston Grey' decreased for 4 to 5 months following the August and October pruning compared to the unpruned controls. `Haggerston Grey's cold tolerance were reduced by 6C in February. October and December pruning of `Natchez' reduced cold hardiness by 4C in January. However, cold hardiness of January and February pruning treatments was similar to unpruned controls. In general, the data indicated that plants of `Haggerston Grey' pruned in October through February were less cold hardy than plants pruned in August. Ideally, `Natchez' crape myrtle should be pruned in late winter.

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The effects of fall and winter pruning on cold hardiness of field-grown Lagerstroemia L. `Natchez' (crape myrtle) were determined. In the first year (1990-1991) pruning prior to January reduced cold hardiness estimates of `Natchez' crape myrtle by 3C compared to controls. In the second year (1991-1992) fall pruning also reduced cold hardiness estimates by 3C on the January and February test dates. Pruning in January or later is recommended for `Natchez' crape myrtle to assure maximum cold hardiness. Similar cold hardiness estimates of `Natchez' crape myrtle were obtained from field trials compared to lath tests conducted the previous year.

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