`Danka' black currant floral buds produce multiple low temperature exotherms (LTEs). However, the absence of visual injury symbtoms in the buds after exposure to subfreezing temperatures make it difficult to assess injury in these buds. A 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction assay was used to determine whether LTEs corresponded to freezing injury of individual floral primordia or to the entire floral axis. Intact buds were cooled at 3C/n, removed at 3C intervals from -12 to -33C, and thawed on ice for 24 h. Duplicate samples were subjected to differential thermal analysis. Freeze injury Could not be measured with TTC in thawed, intact buds. However, incubation of excised floral primordia in TTC resulted in an all or nothing response. The number of LTES did not correspond to the number of floral primordia killed within a floral bud, but the median LTE did correspond with the temperature at which lethal injury of the whole inflorescence occurred. Therefore, preliminary results indicate that TTC reduction assay of individual floral buds is a fast, reliable technique to assess bud injury.
Fumiomi Takeda, R. Arora, M. Wisniewski and M. Warmund
Kenneth R. Tourjee, John M. Shopland and Michele Warmund
J.H. Dunn, S.S. Bughrara, M.R. Warmund and B.F. Fresenburg
Rhizomes of zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) were subjected to controlled freezing tests in Jan. and Mar. 1993 and 1994 to determine their low-temperature tolerance. In 1994, `Belair', `Korean `Common', `Meyer', and `TGS-W10' rhizomes survived temperatures as low as -18 °C, while rhizomes of `Sunburst' survived -14 °C. `Cavalier', `Crowne', `Palisades', `Emerald', and `El Toro' were killed at -10 °C or warmer temperatures. Entries surviving exposure to -14 to -18 °C in 1994 controlled freezing tests received post-winter survival ratings in the field of 6.7 to 8.7 (9 = 100% green). Entries killed at higher freezing test temperatures were slower to recover after winter in the field, with ratings of 2.0 to 3.0. Shoot number produced after freezing was a better measurement for assessing low temperature tolerance than was shoot mass. Controlled freezing tests, using regrowth as a measure of hardiness, appear to be useful for identifying low temperature tolerance of zoysiagrasses in the early years of a field study.
Michele R. Warmund, Bruce H. Barritt, John M. Brown, Karen L. Schaffer and Byoung R. Jeong
`Jonagold'/Mark apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees that were chip-budded in Washington and Illinois on 31 Aug. or 21 Sept. 1989 were sampled in Apr. 1990 to determine if magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be used to nondestructively examine vascular continuity or discontinuity between the rootstock and scion. Images could be placed into three categories based on signal intensity: 1) the rootstock, bud shield, and the bud or new scion growth had a high signal intensity; 2) the rootstock and the bud shield had a high signal intensity, but the scion had a low signal intensity; and 3) the rootstock had a high signal intensity, but the bud shield and scion had a low signal intensity. High signal intensity was associated with bound water in live tissue and the establishment of vascular continuity between the rootstock and scion. Azosulfamide staining and destructive sectioning confirmed that vascular continuity was established when the rootstock, bud shield, and scion had a high signal intensity in images, whereas budding failure occurred when the bud shield and/or the scion had a low signal intensity. Additional trees that had wilted or weak scion growth were collected from Illinois in June 1990. Parenchyma tissue was found in the scion adjacent to the bud shield that interrupted the vascular tissue. Poor scion growth on trees from the 21 Sept. budding in Washington may be attributed to insufficient growth of rootstock and/or scion tissues at the union in the fall.
Emily E. Hoover, Richard P. Marini, Emily Tepe, Wesley R. Autio, Alan R. Biggs, Jon M. Clements, Robert M. Crassweller, Daniel D. Foster, Melanie J. Foster, Peter M. Hirst, Diane Doud Miller, Michael L. Parker, Gregory M. Peck, Jozsef Racsko, Terence L. Robinson and Michele R. Warmund
Researchers have collected a considerable amount of data relating to apple (Malus ×domestica) cultivars and rootstocks over the past 30 years, but much of this information is not easily accessible. The long-term goal of our working group is to increase access to this information using online technology available through eXtension. In eXtension, researchers and extension personnel are developing a community of practice (CoP) to increase the quality and amount of online information for individuals interested in our work [referred to as a community of interest (CoI)]. For this project, our CoI is broadly defined as commercial apple producers, nursery professionals, county extension educators, Extension Master Gardeners, home gardeners, and consumers. Our CoP is developing diverse educational tools, with the goals of increasing productivity, profitability, and sustainability for commercial apple production. Additionally, we will provide other members of our CoI access to research-based, reliable information on the culture of apples. We chose to begin our focus on cultivars and rootstocks adapted to the eastern United States and will add other U.S. regions as our resources and interest in our project grows.