The effects of three highly refined petroleum spray oils and of ambient vapor pressure on net CO2 assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance of water vapor (gs) of single grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) leaves were investigated. Overall, gs of various-aged leaves was decreased by a large leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference (VPD). In the first experiment, oils with midpoint distillation temperatures (50% DT) of 224, 235, and 247C were applied with a hand atomizer at concentrations of 0, 1%, and 4% oil emulsions in water and 100% oil, all with 0.82% surfactant (by volume). There was a tendency for oils of the two higher DT to decrease net gas exchange during a subsequent 12 days, but significant differences could not be attributed to oil DT. Both A and gs were reduced by the two higher concentrations of oil mixtures. In the second experiment, a commercial airblast sprayer was used to apply the 224C oil at 4% or the 235C oil at 2% and 4% mixtures plus surfactant under field conditions. There were no significant effects of oil treatments on net gas exchange of leaves either measured under moderate VPD outdoors 1 day after spraying or under low VPD in the laboratory 2 days after spraying. No visible phytotoxic symptoms were observed in either experiment.
J.P. Syvertsen and M. Salyani
W.J. Kender, U. Hartmond, M. Salyani, J.K. Burns and J.D. Whitney
A field experiment was conducted to determine effects of concentration and spray volume of metsulfuron-methyl as an abscission aid for mechanical harvesting of citrus. Concentrations of 1, 2, and 4 mg·L–1 metsulfuron-methyl were applied to `Hamlin' orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] trees at 470, 1900, and 4700 L·ha–1 (0.5 to 19 g·ha–1 a.i.). Effective fruit loosening was achieved with all applications >1.9 g·ha–1 (4 mg·L–1 at all volumes, 2 mg·L–1 at 1900 and 4700 L·ha–1, and 1 mg·L–1 at 4700 L·ha–1). Heavy defoliation and twig dieback were observed on trees receiving 2 and 4 mg·L–1 at all volumes. Defoliation and dieback became more severe and flower development and fruit set were inhibited as fruit loosening increased. The use of metsulfuron-methyl as an abscission agent for `Hamlin' oranges is not recommended until conditions for its safe application can be determined. Chemical names used: methyl 2-[[[[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl) amino] carbonyl] amino] sulfonyl] benzoate (metsulfuron-methyl).