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  • Author or Editor: M. Lopez-Edwards x
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Virulence of several isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill., Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sor. and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith were evaluated on adult weevils of Anthonomus fulvipes Boheman at dose of 108 spores/mL under laboratory conditions. The study was complemented by testing one isolate each of M. anisopliae and P. fumosoroseus against adult weevils on organically grown Barbados cherry trees at dose of 2 × 1015 spores/ha. All fungi species showed high virulence against A. fulvipes adults, with mortality ranging from 92% to 100%. LT50 values varied 2.7 to 4.8 d. The M. anisopliae isolate 10, and the P. fumosoroseus isolate 1 were selected for field evaluation because laboratory insect cadavers presented the best sporulation. After applying the fungi to the trees, total weevil captures were 38, 56, and 100 for the P. fumosoroseus, M. anisopliae, and the check (untreated) plots, respectively. Statistical differences in fruit damage were detected among treatments: M. anisopliae and P. fumosoroseus treatments showed an average of 50% of undamaged fruits, whereas in the control plots presented 36% of undamaged fruits. Laboratory and field experiments suggest that entomopathogenic fungi have a potential as microbial control agents against the weevil A. fulvipes in organically grown Barbados cherry trees.

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The susceptibility of third-instar larvae of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) to the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (All and Tecomán strains), S. feltiae (Filiipjev), S. glaseri (Steiner) (NC strain), S. riobrave (Cabanillas, Poinar & Raulston), and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (NC, Patronato, and Tecomán strains), was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Sterile distilled water (1.0 mL) with 4000 infective juvenile nematodes were applied on 300 g of moistened sterile soil into 1000-mL pots, and 20 third-instar larvae were placed on the soil surface, 1 mL of distilled water without nematodes was applied as control. Each nematode treatment was replicated four times. After nematode application, pots were incubated at 25 °C. Mortality of larvae and pupae was evaluated 6 and 12 d after inoculation. Cadavers of larvae and pupae were dissected and examined for the presence of nematodes. Our results showed that Mexican fruit larvae were susceptible to entomopathogenic nematodes. S. riobrave and S. carpocapsae All strain caused 90% of larval and pupae cumulative mortality, H. bactetiophora NC strain and S. feltiae killed more than 80%, whereas H. bacteriophora Tecomán and S. glaseri caused a 52.5% mortality. These results suggest that the nematodes S. riobrave and S. carpocapsae All strain have a potential as biological control agents against A. ludens.

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