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  • Author or Editor: M. J. Ceponis x
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Abstract

Over a 3-year period, losses in dry onions (Allium cepa L.) at the retail and consumer levels, respectively, in metropolitan New York were 0.2 and 3.7% for ‘Yellow Globe’ onions, 3.0 and 4.2% for ‘Grano-Granex’ onions, and 8.0 and 6.4% for Spanish type onions. Parasitic diseases, principally Botrytis rots, caused most of the loss in the 3 onion types at both levels.

Open Access

Abstract

Retail store losses of whole heads or their equivalents of western crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata L.) in the fall and winter crop were 4.2 and 5.2% in field-wrapped and nonwrapped heads, respectively, during 1977-80 in metropolitan New York. Trimming losses increased the retail loss to 14% one year. Consumer level losses for 3 years was 11%. Bacterial soft rot and rusty brown discoloration were the chief causes of loss in retail stores. Mechanical injuries and russet spotting were the leading causes of loss in consumer samples.

Open Access

Abstract

In a 3-year study conducted in metropolitan New York, retail losses of fresh green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were 14.9% when merchandized in bulk, but only 3.8% when prepackaged. Samples procured from bulk and from prepackaged retail store displays and held for 3 days under refrigeration to simulate home conditions had 8.2% and 10.5% waste, respectively. Desiccation was the leading cause of retail loss. Mechanical and physical injuries caused most of the loss in consumer samples.

Open Access

Abstract

Parasitic diseases were the main cause of losses at retail and consumer levels in fresh tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) marketed in Greater New York in 1974-1977. Losses at the retail level (LRL) were 6.3 and 6.7% in prepackaged and loose fruits, respectively, and losses in consumer samples (LCL) were 7.9 and 4.7%, respectively. More than 60% of the LRL and 80% of the LCL resulted from diseases, principally alternaria, rhizopus, and gray mold rots and bacterial soft rot. Physical injuries and physiological disorders caused the remaining losses, the former being considerably more damaging.

Open Access

Abstract

Retail losses totaled 5.9% in dry-type and 5.4% in moist-type sweet potatoes in 7 representative metropolitan New York supermarkets during 1970-73. Losses in consumer samples purchased in 6 stores were 10.7% in the dry types and 8.0% in the moist types after being held 4 days at 21°C. Rhizopus soft rot, mechanical injury, and desiccation were the leading causes of loss in retail. Rhizopus soft rot and hardcore, a “cooking hard” disorder, caused most of the loss in consumer samples.

Open Access

Abstract

During 1970-73, the condition of western-grown pears (Pyrus communis L.) was studied in metropolitan New York supermarkets and in consumer samples. Retail losses totaled 4.9, 2.5, and 1.9%. in ‘Bosc’, ‘d’Anjou’, and ‘Bartlett’ pears, respectively, and waste in consumer samples was 5.2, 1.6, and 4.0%, respectively. Mechanical injury caused the most loss in retail and internal breakdown the most in consumer samples.

Open Access

Abstract

More fungal rot developed in storage of water-picked (WP) than in hand-picked (HP) fruit of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait) after the berries had been held in the bog water up to 24 hours. When the water-immersion time was 12 hours or more, more physiological breakdown (PB) occurred in HP than in WP fruits. Generally, less rot and PB developed in the most highly colored berries (dark red) than in berries that were less colored.

Open Access

Abstract

Quantitative and qualitative losses incurred in the marketing of nectarines (Prunus persica L. ‘Nectarina’ Ait) in metropolitan New York were studied at wholesale, retail, and consumer levels from 1981 to 1983. Examination of nectarines at the wholesale level indicated that losses to pathological, physiological, and physical deterioration were 3.3%. Losses of 6.6% were observed at retail store and consumer levels. Decay, mainly due to brown rot, was the leading cause of loss in wholesale and consumer level sampling, whereas mechanical damage caused most of the loss in retail.

Open Access

Abstract

Losses in white- and red-flesh grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) retailed in metropolitan New York during 1981-83 were 3.6%. There was no difference between the 2 types of fruit. Florida-grown grapefruit had a retail cullage loss of 3.5%. No significant difference in loss occurred between store-prepackaged and loose fruit during retail. Parasitic diseases were responsible for almost half of the culls; rind breakdown and mechanical damage accounted for most of the remainder. Sampling at the wholesale level revealed a potential cullage of 1.4%.

Open Access

Abstract

Freshly harvested blueberry fruit (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) were held for 7 or 14 days at 2°C under constant atmospheres of CO2 in air or with 2% O2, under 2% O2 alone or in normal atmosphere. When the berries were removed from the controlled atmospheres and held for 3 days at 21°, the CO2-enriched atmospheres of 10%, 15%, or 20% significantly inhibited decay development for 1-2 days. The higher CO2-enriched atmospheres generally were more effective. The 2% O2 atmosphere alone was ineffective and did not enhance the CO2 treatment.

Open Access