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  • Author or Editor: M. Henry x
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Abstract

Stevens (4) has given a recent and thorough review of cultivar influence on nutritive value in fresh fruits and vegetables. Differences described in his paper indicate that there is great potential in breeding for nutritional value. The largest body of information is with respect to vitamins. Here it is not uncommon for one cultivar to have twice the vitamin concentration of another, and occasional differences may be much greater. Minerals and protein apparently vary to a lesser degree than vitamins, and less is known about cultivars which are consistently high or low in these nutrients. Nevertheless, there is a real potential for developing cultivars that have higher percentage composition of minerals and proteins as well as of vitamins.

Open Access
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Abstract

The origin of floriculture as a commercial enterprise arose from the practices developed by private estates and public parks. The motivation for excellence in crop production was for spectacular display effect at any cost. Fancy greenhouse structures were designed for growing plants which required labor-intensive techniques to bring flowering plants to the desired time of display. Secrets of growing were hoarded by growers. This was unlike the origin and the attitudes of other areas of agriculture. Field and fruit crop production evolved from a subsistence enterprise through barter or exchange to specialization and technological change. The nature of the origin of commercial floriculture was further handicapped in that its perishable products implied a limited need for duration.

Open Access
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Abstract

The following statements were written in the hope of expediting discussion at the session in Davis, California on August 18, 1968 on “Plant Patents and Alternate Methods of Breeder Protection.” All except 5(e) were distributed to the four panel members in advance of the meeting. Three indicated their agreement with them and the fourth offered no dissent. Copies were distributed at the meeting and while no vote was taken, there appeared to be general agreement on the statements. In addition, several spoke in favor of, and none against, adding an additional point which is listed here as 5(e).

Open Access

Tissue culture labs based in countries with high labor costs are becoming more dependent on proprietary plants. This has increased the necessity of high profile plant breeding programs. Foliage and flowering plant breeding programs have evolved rapidly to take advantage of the benefits associated with tissue culture labs.

Breeding strategies and methods will be discussed on existing flowering and foliage programs for Anthuriums, Euphorbia, Aloe, Spathiphyllum, Homalomena, and Dieffenbachia. Embryo rescue in the lab has increased the survival of wide crosses from different species within a genera. Rapid multiplication of selected clones has increased the efficiency of screening for disease and insect resistance in the selection of new cultivars. Marketing, along with improved horticultural characteristics, determine the success of new releases.

Free access
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Abstract

Chemical growth retardants are unique in the history of chemical regulation of plants. All types thus far used by growers have been synthetics. Unlike many other classes of growth regulators, we have thus far not detected the naturally occurring chemicals that account for the development of dwarf plants. For one reason, dwarf plants may result from reduced or degenerated biosynthetic pathways for the natural production of gibberellin-like compounds. Also, they may result from the synthesis of a number of interrelated compounds, which separately have little effect on growth. In certain combinations and concentrations, however, they affect cell division and expansion control systems. Chemical growth retardants permit a direct approach to growth control by retarding internode elongation without seriously disrupting the growth processes that involve chlorophyll and phytochrome. They permit growers to predetermine the size of the plant for many different uses and have become an integral part of many plant production systems (Fig. 1). Florists’ and nurserymen’s catalogs designate cultivars as particularly responsive to a specific chemical growth retardant.

Open Access
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Fruits and vegetables are being recommended more strongly than ever for improving human health, but, in some parts of the world, supplies are inadequate and, even when supplies are abundant, some segments of the population eat far less then recommended amounts. This divergence suggests that careful analysis and multiple approaches are needed to maximize the benefits of horticultural crops to human health. Information about the specific health benefits of certain crops and the value of diversity in the diet to get benefits not yet understood may stimulate increased usage. An attractive, appetizing, and economical supply seems essential, and may require efforts ranging from breeding for resistance, flavor, appearance, and holdability, through production and harvesting methods, to postharvest handling and processing.

Free access
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Abstract

2,3-dihydro-5,6-diphenyl-1,4-oxathiin, (UBI-P293) acts as localized blocker of cell division and expansion while well formed tissues are exempt and develop normally. When applied to vegetative chrysanthemum plants, UBI-P293 blocked development of the top 8–10 nodes; whereas lateral shoots developed at the same rate, number, and weight as those observed on manually pruned plants. When applied to plants initiating flowers, UBI-P293 caused chemical disbudding by blocking development of laterals while the terminal bud was exempt and expanded into a normal inflorescence. The optimum concentration for the 35 cultivars evaluated varied from 0.25 to 1.0% when applied between 15 to 24 short days. Higher concentrations or earlier applications of UBI-P293 inhibited all development.

Open Access

Abstract

West Indian mahogany [Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.] grown outdoors under 63% shade in southern Florida exhibited 3 distinct growth phases during the autumn and winter months. During the first phase (September through November), long-day conditions enhanced growth beyond that of natural daylength plants. In the 2nd phase (December through February), plants were essentially quiescent under both photoperiodic regimes in response to cool temperatures. In the 3rd phase (beginning in March), both long-day and natural daylength plants resumed growth at comparable rates. Thus, extending the photoperiod increases the growth rate in the autumn, but has little effect thereafter.

Open Access

Abstract

Extractability (in 1 n NH4OAc, pH 7.0) of Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu from a Canadian peat, perlite, and sand medium amended with 6 commercial micronutrient fertilizer mixes was determined over an 80-week period with semi-weekly leaching. With the exception of Fe from FeDTPA, which dropped rapidly from very high levels to almost zero, and Fe from Esmigran, which was not extractable by NH4OAc, levels of all 5 elements from most fertilizer sources decreased slightly during the 1st month but then remained rather constant for the remainder of the 18 month experimental period. Extractable Mn, Zn, and Fe were reduced significantly by the superphosphate in Micromax Plus.

Open Access