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  • Author or Editor: M. Faust x
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Abstract

‘York Imperial’ apple trees on EM 26 rootstock were grown in large, outdoor sand cultures for 3 years. All combinations of N at 2, 4, or 8 me/1 as all NO3 or as 3/4NH4 - 1/4 NO3; Ca at 1, 8 or 16 me/1; and B at 0.05 or 0.5 ppm were supplied in solution, with other nutrients in normal supply. Levels of N and Ca and their interactions affected growth under NO3 nutrition. Growth was greatly reduced under NH4 nutrition, but was little affected by levels of N and Ca. Leaf tissues were analysed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The average, 3-year over-all effect of NH4 nutrition was to increase leaf concentration of all elements except K, Al, and Mn. Source of N altered the main effects and interactions between levels of N and Ca. B had little effect on concentration of other elements in the leaves.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Growth retardants [ancymidol (0.1-1.0 mg·liter−1), chlormequat (0.5-500 mg·liter−1), and paclobutrazol (0.1-1.0 mg·liter−1)] reduced shoot extension, promoted root initiation, and increased root weight in apple seedlings (Malus domestica Borkh ‘York Imperial’). The induction of root formation and increase in root weight were accompanied by a considerable increase in polyamine levels. Daminozide (0.1-250.0 mg·liter−1) and dikegulac (0.25-500 mg·liter−1) also inhibited apple seedling growth; however, these compounds did not promote rooting. Chemical names used: α-cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol); 2-chloro-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium chloride (chlormequat chloride); butanedioic acid mono(2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); 2,3:4,6-bis-O-(l-methylethylidene)-α-L-xylo-2-hexulofuranosonic acid (dikegulac); β-(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(l,l-dimethylethyl)-lH-1,2,4-triazole-l-ethanol (paclobutrazol).

Open Access
Authors: , , and

Changes in water status have been associated with various stages of dormancy and freezing tolerance in woody perennials. Recent studies in apple indicate that changes in the state (bound vs. free) of bud water are strongly correlated with the end of dormancy. In this study nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) was used to monitor changes in the state of bud water during the photoperiodic induction of endo-dormancy in Vitis riparia. Bud water status was monitored using proton relaxation times from T1 and T2 images determined at 2, 4, and 6 weeks of long (LD) or short (SD) photoperiod treatments. Bud dormancy was determined by monitoring budbreak in plants defoliated after photoperiod treatments. NMRI allowed nondestructive monitoring of changes in tissue water state. T1 and T2 maps indicated changes in the state of the water in bud and stem tissues during the 6 weeks of treatment. Differences in relaxation times for nondormant and dormancy-induced (reversible) buds were not clear. However, T2 relaxation times were lower in the dormant buds than in the nondormant buds.

Free access

Abstract

Open pollinated ‘York Imperial’ apple seedlings (Malus domestica Borkh) were grown in an acid soil at 2 liming rates or in nutrient solution with or without added aluminum, with either NH4 + or NH3 - at various rates as N source. High and equal Ca levels were maintained for the different Al treatments. Growth of seedlings and Ca-uptake in the soil were much less at pH 4.7 than at 5.1, and seedlings responded better to liming when NH4 + was the N source. With either N source, best growth was obtained at a rate of 100 ppm N, whereas growth was lower at 50 and at 200 or 400 ppm N. In nutrient solution, the efficiency of Ca-uptake by roots and of Ca-transport was decreased by the presence of Al. This decrease was the greatest when NH3 -, rather than NH4 +, was the N source. The findings suggest interference by Al in nitrate metabolism. Al is toxic to apple seedlings at chemical activity in the order of 6.5 × 106M.

Open Access

Abstract

Open-pollinated ‘York Imperial’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) and Nemagard peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) seedlings were grown in nutrient solution containing either NH4 + or NO3 -. The solution contained 0 or 4 ppm A1 and the pH was maintained at 4.5 by frequent adjustment. Apple seedlings grew better, and growth was less affected by Al, when the N source was NH4 + rather than NO3 -. Peach seedlings grew better when supplied with NO3 -. The total quantity of Ca, Mg, K, P, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe taken up by both apple and peach seedlings was less in the presence of Al when N was supplied as NO3 -. Nutrient uptake by seedlings receiving NH4 + was slightly less or not affected by the presence of Al. Uptake of Mn and Fe was greater in both species and K and P uptake greater in apples, whereas Ca uptake by peach seedlings was less in the presence of NH4 +. Aluminum uptake and transport was lower with NH4 + than with NO3 - as N source.

Open Access

Abstract

Polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000)-induced water stress (—0.5 to —7.5 bars) reduced shoot and root growth, water use, and stem 45Ca in seedlings of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch). Sucrose feeding through a leaf did not affect stem 45Ca with or without osmotic stress. 45Calcium uptake per milligram water used was not different at different solution osmotic potentials. A split-root study, with half the root system receiving 45Ca and/or PEG, showed that if 45Ca was supplied only to the water-stressed root half, 45Ca uptake into stems was low regardless of whether the other root half was stressed or not. Results indicate that reduced stem Ca during water stress is probably not a direct result of decreased root energy needed for active uptake or reduced translocation out of the root. Calcium absorption appeared to be related to the amount of unsuberized root surface available for Ca uptake.

Open Access
Authors: , , and

Abstract

A cyanide-resistant alternative pathway was found to exist in root tissue of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). In the absence of potassium cyanide (KCN), an inhibitor of cytochrome electron transport, the alternative pathway did not contribute to overall root respiration. However, in the presence of KCN or carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP), an uncoupler, active participation of the alternative pathway was detected. Inhibition of O2 uptake by salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) was observed in the presence of antimycin A (AA) or sodium azide (NaN3), but to a lesser degree than when KCN was present. The degree of inhibition by SHAM was greatest in the presence of KCN, followed by AA and then NaN3. The antioxidant n-Propyl gallate (PG) was found to be an effective inhibitor of the alternative pathway. The site of inhibition in apple root tissue by PG is very similar to that of SHAM. Sodium benzoate, another antioxidant and free radical scavenger, and tetraethylthiuram disulfide (disulfiram), a copper chelator, did not inhibit the alternative pathway in apple root tissue.

Open Access
Authors: , , and

Abstract

Apple seedlings (Malus domestica Borkh.) were grown in the greenhouse under a range of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced osmotic potential stresses up to −7.5 bars. Water use by seedlings (ml water consumed/dm2 leaf area) responded to ambient temperature fluctuations after 4 days in the solution. During the first 4 days after initiation of the stress, no response was obtained indicating that the seedlings were undergoing an “adaptation period.” Plants receiving higher osmotic stresses were less able to respond to ambient temperature fluctuations as measured by transpiration. Transpiration rate decreased as osmotic stress was increased. PEG-induced osmotic water stress and water stress in soil were compared, the latter by letting the soil mass dry out. Comparable transpiration rates from the 2 methods, when plotted, showed that PEG-induced osmotic stresses of −0.5 and −4.0 bar were equivalent to greenhouse potting soil at 75% of field capacity and approaching the wilting point, respectively. It was concluded that the PEG-induced water stress was similar to water stress in soil, thus PEG-induced stress can be used in experiments with apples to study various effects of water stress. Use of a freezing point depression osmometer in determining solution osmotic potentials of PEG-modified solutions is described.

Open Access
Authors: , , and

Abstract

Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced water stress in nutrient solutions decreased both water consumption and 45Ca uptake by apple seedlings (Malus domestica Borkh.) The decrease in water uptake was more severe than the decrease in 45Ca uptake. When 45Ca uptake was calculated on the basis of water consumption, it was found that 45Ca uptake was not dependent on water uptake although water was necessary for movement of 45Ca. In split-root experiments, PEG and 45Ca were either applied to the same half of the root or to separate halves. Calcium uptake decreased in plants subjected to water stress. The results indicated that the site of this decrease was at the root, not the aerial portion of the plant which, indirectly, may affect root function and thus 45Ca uptake. Split-root experiments also indicated that the unstressed half of the root cannot fully compensate for the stressed half of the root in either water or 45Ca uptake. Water use of plants with half of their root under a −5.0 bar water stress was decreased by 30%. Urea-nitrogen pretreatment did not modify the effect of osmotic stress on leaf Ca, Mg and K concentrations, water use or dry matter production during the period of applied water stress. All these parameters decreased with increasing solution osmotic stress.

Open Access

Magnetic resonance imaging estimates unreasonably high T2 times when creating T2 images in woody plants when tissues contain a limited amount of water. We developed a system to correct such images. Tissue distribution of proton density and states of water were determined by creating images of proton density and T2 relaxation times in summerdormant (paradormant) apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) buds. These images reveal that the proton density and water states obviously are not distributed uniformly in the bud and stem; but, the distribution of water depends greatly on the tissue type (bark, xylem, or meristem of the stem), and there are differences in the states of water even within the same tissue. At low proton density T2, calculated relaxation times were unreasonably high in tissues, with the exception of meristem of the shoot. In buds that were induced to grow and in which proton density was higher, T2 times appeared as expected. Variance of T2 times in tissues containing little water was 50 times higher than in those with a higher water content. Data with such high variance were excluded from the images; thus, the image was “corrected.” Corrected images of T2 times fit the distribution of water indicated by the proton density images well.

Free access