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  • Author or Editor: M. E. Austin x
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Abstract

The use of degree-day accumulations showed little advantage over calendar days when the ease of calculation for calendar days was considered. Calendar day measurements appeared to be more practical and more reliable than degree days. However, when calendar days from transplanting were compared to calendar days from the date that the stem stopped enlarging, it was found that the latter criterion was more reliable for estimating the time when the earliest maximum yield occurred. In fact, it was the most reliable criterion of many that were studied (1). Similar results were reported by Vollbrecht (5), however he stated that a more practical method is still needed to predict optimum harvest periods.

Open Access

Abstract

Growth rate of several tomato cultivars, indexed by stem diameter measurements, was not influenced by broadcasting 50–100–100 lb./A fertilizer, by sidedressing 60 to 80 lb N, or by increasing the plant population from 5,800 to 23,200 plants/A in either single or dual rows at 2 locations.

Broadcasting 5–10–10 fertilizer prior to planting increased total yields, but the earliest maximum yield of marketable fruit was delayed. Sidedressing N also delayed the earliest maximum yield.

Fertilizer application did not influence fruit size, but size was reduced at high plant populations and at later harvests. The once-over maximum yield was increased at a high plant population when spacing between dual rows was 18 or 24 inches.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Chemical and mechanical treatments were applied to 3 cultivars of field grown sweet potatoes, Ipomoea batatas (Lam.), in an attempt to reduce the amount of skinning injury from harvest and handling. Treatments that destroyed the leaves and vines, i.e. sodium arsenite, paraquat, and mowing at soil level, reduced skinning of fleshy roots later during harvest. The reduction in fleshy root skinning from harvest treatments was significant but not visually apparent in field containers.

Thickness of periderm of the sweet potatoes was not influenced by chemical or mechanical treatments but dates of application and time of harvest influenced periderm development. Skinning was most severe when the periderm was thickest.

There appeared to be an association between low soil temperature (60° F) and skinning.

Changes in carbohydrate composition of ‘Nemagold’ roots were partly associated with changes in soil temperature. Accumulation of carbohydrates in roots varied with cultivar and season, and there was no relationship between the carbohydrate composition and severity of skinning.

Yield of roots was reduced in most plots where vines were killed or stunted by treatments, especially those made early in the harvest season and in treatments applied 2 weeks prior to harvest.

Open Access

Abstract

The response of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade, cv. Tifblue) to 3 plant spacings and 3 fertilizer levels was compared for 6 years. Tifblue did not respond to fertilizer levels during the first 5 years, but beginning the 3rd year in the field, higher yields were obtained with higher plant population (2315 plants/ha). Increasing fertilizer levels increased unmarketable fruit, the amount of pruned wood and the time required to grade fruit. The best combination of spacing and fertilizer were 1.8 m in-the-row spacing and 67-30-40 kg/ha of N-P-K, respectively.

Open Access

Abstract

In the paper entitled, Influence of plant spacing on yield of muscadine grape by W. T. Brightwell and M. E. Austin (J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 100(4):374-376, 1975), the figure in Table 2, Year 1955, 20.1 square meters, 435 plants/ha should read 9.8a instead of 26.8a and the avg for the same column should read 29.0ab instead of 29.6ab.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Seed counts of 2 size grades from 3 fruit sizes were made from 30 fruits each of 21 rabbiteye (Vaccinium ashei Reade) cultivars and selections. Total seeds/berry ranged from 110 for ‘Briteblue’ to 28 for selection T-111. Generally, larger fruit had more total and large seeds than smaller fruit; however, this relationship was not constant for all cultivars. Total seed number and number of large seeds per fruit appear to be heritable.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Prior to 1964 work relating morphological changes of the tomato plant to the occurrence of the earliest once-over maximum yield of ripe fruit had not been reported. In studies of growth and fruiting characteristics of several tomato cultivars to develop an objective method to predict the harvest date, Austin determined that the cessation of stem enlargement was the best index. Measuring stems, however, with calipers at 3-and 4-day intervals is laborious.

Open Access

Abstract

Fruits of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Read cv. Tifblue) were harvested by hand and an overrow mechanical harvester for 2 years. Machine harvest increased ground loss of marketable fruit over hand harvest. Hand-harvested fruit were 29 to 37% firmer than machine-harvested fruit. When held for 7-11 days at 15.5°C, machine-harvested fruit had more than twice the amount of soft and unmarketable fruit than hand-harvested fruit. Pruning rabbiteye blueberry plants increased the harvesting efficiency of the machine.

Open Access

Abstract

Results of tests to evaluate periderm peeling and failure forces of container-grown roots of sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas, Lam. cv. Nemagold), conditioned to various environments, were erratic. With field-grown roots, peeling and failure forces varied with soil temperature and soil moisture and were generally highest for warm dry conditions. Temperature and moisture had approximately equal effects on periderm peeling resistance within the ranges tested. Periderm thickness decreased and peeling resistance increased as soil temperature increased, but the number of cell layers remained fairly constant.

Open Access

Abstract

Plants set 6.1, 6.4 and 6.7 m apart in each of 3.0-, 3.7- and 4.3-m rows of the muscadine grape, Vitis rotundifolia, Michx., cv. Hunt, were compared for 25 years. The highest plant density, 477 plants/ha, gave the greatest yield per m2 almost consistently for 25 years. The highest yields per plant were obtained from the wider in-the-row spacings. Alternate bearing was rather consistent from 1949 through 1963, but irregular thereafter.

Open Access