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M. Dolores Loureiro, M. Carmen Martínez, Jean-Michel Boursiquot, and Patrice This

`Albariño' (Vitis vinifera L.) is an important grape cultivar in Spain, morphologically diverse but subject to much misnaming. The objectives of the present work were to correct some of the more common misnamings concerning `Albariño' and to evaluate the genetic variability within this cultivar by analyzing DNA polymorphisms using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and microsatellite techniques. Several accessions of `Albariño' (16 accessions from Misión Biológica de Galicia, one accession from El Encin, one accession from Rancho de la Merced), related cultivars (`Alvarinho', `Caíño blanco', `Cainho branco', `Loureiro'), and cultivars presumably identical to misnomers (`Savagnin blanc' and `Gewürztraminer') were analyzed using 20 RAPD markers and six microsatellite loci. Both techniques revealed polymorphism among `Albariño', `Caíño blanco', `Albariño' from Rancho de la Merced and `Loureiro'. No polymorphism was detected among the 16 `Albariño' accessions from Galicia, the `Albariño' accession from El Encin and `Alvarinho', nor among the `Albariño' accession from Rancho de la Merced, `Savagnin blanc' and `Gewürztraminer', nor between `Caíño blanco' and `Cainho branco'. These results enabled us to clarify the main misnomers concerning these cultivars. The absence of polymorphism among the true `Albariño' accessions did not allow the detection of any clonal variation. The suitability of both techniques for defining the cultivar level for grapevine is discussed.

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César Mota-Cadenas, Carlos Alcaraz-López, M. Carmen Martínez-Ballesta, and Micaela Carvajal

It has been recognized widely that sequestration of atmospheric CO2 by terrestrial ecosystems can contribute significantly to the stabilization of atmospheric CO2. The carbon sequestration potential of crop lands should be considered as a modest but non-negligible contribution to climate change mitigation. Salinity is one of the most important environmental factors limiting crop production of marginal agricultural soils in many parts of the world. In our research, several physiological analyses were performed in atmospheric CO2, in daylight, both in normal conditions and with salinity (40 mm NaCl). Crops like melon or pepper showed significantly lower photosynthetic rates when they were grown in saline conditions. Also, the total chlorophyll content and carbon percentage were lower in the salinity-treated plants of these species. For lettuce, treated plants showed a significant decrease in photosynthetic rates and chlorophyll content, but there were no differences in carbon content. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in the values of total chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, or carbon content for tomato and watermelon plants when control and NaCl-treated plants were compared. The mineral composition data showed greater increases of sodium in both roots and leaves of melon and pepper when plants were treated with NaCl compared with the rest of the species. In conclusion, tomato and watermelon seem to be more efficient in CO2 fixation than the other crops of this experiment and this seems to be related to their greater salinity tolerance.

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Eva García-Méndez, David García-Sinovas, Maximo Becerril, Antońeta De Cal, Paloma Melgarejo, Anselmo Martínez-Treceño, Steven A. Fennimore, Carmen Soria, Juan J. Medina, and Jóse M. López-Aranda

The phase out of methyl bromide (MB) requires effective alternatives for soil disinfestation, particularly in high-elevation strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) nurseries. Methyl bromide alternative fumigants were evaluated over a 3-year period for weed control and runner plant yields at strawberry nurseries in Spain. Two types of field trials were carried out: replicated experiments and commercial-scale field demonstrations. In the replicated experiments, eight fumigant treatments were evaluated each year, including the nonfumigated control and commercial standard methyl bromide plus chloropicrin mixture (MB : Pic) (50 : 50 w/w). Among the treatments evaluated were dazomet, chloropicrin (Pic) alone, metam sodium plus chloropicrin (MS + Pic), 1,3-dichloropropene:chloropicrin (1,3-D : Pic) (61 : 35 w/w), DMDS plus chloropicrin (DMDS + Pic), and propylene oxide. The best alternative fumigant treatments from the replicated experiments were carried forward to the demonstration phase of the project. Treatments such as 1,3-D : Pic (300 kg·ha−1), the combination of metam sodium plus chloropicrin (Pic) (400 to 500 + 150 to 250 kg·ha−1), Pic alone (300 kg·ha−1) as well as dazomet (400 kg·ha−1) controlled weeds at the level of MB : Pic (400 kg·ha−1). Runner plant yields, in soils previously fumigated with alternative fumigants varied, among years, locations, and trial scale, i.e., commercial scale, or small plot. By comparison, runner plant yields in MB : Pic-fumigated soils were consistently high among years, location, and trial scale. Chemical names used are: 1,3-D, 1,3-dichloropropene; MB, methyl bromide; Pic, trichloronitromethane; MS, sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate; DMDS, dimethyl disulphide; dazomet, tetrahydro-3,5-dimethyl-2H-1,3,5-thiadiazine-2-thione; PO, propylene oxide

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José M. López-Aranda, Carmen Soria, Luis Miranda, José F. Sánchez-Sevilla, Josefa Gálvez, Rosalía Villalba, Fernando Romero, Berta De Los Santos, Juan J. Medina, Javier Palacios, Emilio Bardón, Antonio Arjona, Antonio Refoyo, Anselmo Martínez-Treceño, Antoñeta De Cal, Paloma Melgarejo, and Rafael Bartual

Aguedilla is a short-day strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) cultivar obtained by the Spanish public breeding program (Agreement CC01-0008-F1). 'Aguedilla' produces excellent extra-early, early, mid-season, and late-season large-sized, wedge-shaped fruit, and a low percentage of second quality fruit. An agronomic and sensorial characterization of this new cultivar, in comparison with the well-adapted cultivars 'Camarosa', 'Medina', and 'Ventana', was undertaken during the 2002–03 and 2003–04 crop seasons.