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- Author or Editor: Luther Waters Jr. x
Pods of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) stored in an atmosphere of 5% O2 and 10% CO2 at 10 ± 1C were compared with pods stored in air at the same temperature to determine the effects of storage environment on physical characteristics and ethylene evolution of the pods. Controlled-atmosphere-(CA) stored pods lost less weight, retained total solids and chlorophyll better, and had a higher mucilage viscosity than air-stored pods. Toughness, fibrousness, and incidence of microbial decay were lower in CA-stored pods than in air-stored pods. No differences were seen in the levels of alcohol-insoluble solids or discoloration of the cut surface between pods from the two storage environments. Ethylene evolution was lower in CA- than air-stored pods.
As broccoli populations increased from 24,000 to 72,000 plants/ha at N rates of 112, 168, or 224 kg/ha, head weight decreased linearly. Increasing the N rate from 56 to 224 kg/ha at any population linearly increased broccoli head weight and marketable yields, and decreased cull yields. Broccoli yields were highest at 72,000 plants/ha and 224 kg N/ha. No marketable cauliflower curds were produced at 56 kg N/ha at any population evaluated. As populations increased from 24,000 to 72,000 plants/ha with N rates held constant at either 112 or 224 kg/ha, marketable curd weight decreased linearly and cull production increased linearly. Increasing the N rate from 112 to 224 kg/ha did not increase marketable curd weight or yields at any population. Increasing the N rate to 112 kg/ha or higher reduced cull production at 24,000 plants/ha, but not at populations of 36,000 or higher. Cauliflower yields were optimized at 24,000 plants/ha and 112 kg N/ha based on reduced cull production, satisfactory curd weights, and transplant economy.
Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var italica) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var botrytis) were seeded and grown for 4 weeks in containers ranging from 3.8 to 30.5 cm3 in volume, 2.0 to 4.3 cm wide, 3.2 to 7.2 cm deep, and at densities of 540 to 2500 plants/m2. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of container size on growth of 4-week-old plants and on their subsequent yield. The number of leaves/plant, leaf dry weight/plant, plant height, and leaf area/plant of 4-week-old broccoli and cauliflower plants generally increased with increasing container width, volume, and decreasing plant density. Container depth did not affect these variables, except to increase plant height as depth increased. Container volume, width, and depth and density did not affect marketable yields of broccoli and cauliflower. Earliness, length of harvest season, and cull yields of broccoli and cauliflower generally were unaffected by container size. Small containers (2.0 cm wide, 3.2 to 4.5 cm deep, 3.8 to 5.9 cm3 in volume, and 2500 plants/m2) are economical and appropriate depending on seedbed conditions.
In 3 separate experiments, the effects of container types, transplant age, and growing media on asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) transplant quality were determined. These transplants then were field planted to determine the effects of propagation methods on plant growth after one growing season. Transplants grown for 10 weeks in deep peat pots (10 cm deep, 177 cm3, and 364 plants/m2) produced crowns and fern of higher fresh and dry weight than other containers (ranging in depth from 5.5 to 7.6 cm, in volume from 53 to 186 cm3, and plant density/m2 from 277 to 1624). Shoot and root growth of 7-, 8.5-, and 10-week-old transplants (grown in identical containers) were similar, but crown fresh and dry weight were reduced for 6-week-old transplants. Ten-week-old transplants originally broadcast-seeded in flats of 1 vermiculite: 1 peat medium (v:v) produced more roots, buds, shoots and fern and crowns of greater fresh and dry weight than those grown in 1 peat : 1 perlite or 1 perlite : 1 vermiculite media. At the end of the growing season, plants originally grown in deep peat pots were superior in number of shoots and fleshy roots, and crown and fern dry weight to those grown in other container types, to transplants of various ages, and to bareroot transplants.
Three presowing seed hydration treatments and a control were compared for stand establishment with a normal (su) (‘Jubilee’) and two high-sugar (‘Sweetie’, ‘Sugar Loaf’) sweet corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids. Moisturizing (M) and soaking (S) improved early emergence, while an osmoconditioning (OC) treatment significantly reduced field emergence compared to control. Plant size was increased in the M and S treatments at an early (2- to 4-leaf) vegetative stage. The effectiveness of hydration treatments differed slightly with hybrid. Results from spring and fall plantings at several locations suggest that presowing seed hydration can be used to improve stands of sweet corn.
Grower tours, one of the most effective agricultural extension teaching methods (13), have been conducted for many years to production areas generally unfamiliar to participating growers and agribusiness people. Most consist simply of a sequence of visits to farms or agribusinesses where the owners (managers) of the visited businesses explain the operation observed as the tour proceeds through the facility.
Asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.) stored 28 days at 2C in air, a flow-through controlled-atmosphere (CA) system, or 14 days in polymeric film consumer packages were evaluated in respect to compositional and quality changes. CA-stored spears retained more sugars, organic acids, and soluble proteins than spears stored in air. Spears stored in vented consumer packages had a useful life of 14 days, whereas those in nonvented packages started to break down after 8 days. Spears from vented packages lost more weight but retained more sugars and organic acids than those from nonvented packages.
After the first full growing season, 9- and 11-week-old asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) seedlings transplanted in fall exhibited superior crown and fern characteristics relative to seedlings of the same ages transplanted in spring. Seedlings overwintered in coldframes and planted in the spring matched or exceeded growth of those transplanted the previous fall. The hybrid ‘Jersey Giant’ was superior to an improved selection of ‘Mary Washington’ for all planting dates. Correlations between seedling size at transplanting and after one season’s growth were significant for crown weight (r = 0.82), fern weight (r = 0.65), and fern number (r = 0.60). The importance of seedling size is further confirmed by the superior growth of 11-week-old over 9-week-old seedlings up to 18 months after planting.
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) pods stored In a controlled atmosphere (CA) of 5% O2 and 10% CO2 at 11 ± 1C and in air at the same temperature (RA) were compared to determine the effects of the two storage environments on changes in sugars, organic acids, proteins and amino acids, and ascorbic acid contents within the tissue. Pods were sampled at 3-day intervals for 12 days. CA-stored pods generally had greater retention of sugars, soluble proteins, and amino acids than RA-stored pods. Citric, malic, and ascorbic acids contents of CA pods also declined more slowly than those of RA pods.