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- Author or Editor: Luther Waters Jr. x
Asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.) stored 28 days at 2C in air, a flow-through controlled-atmosphere (CA) system, or 14 days in polymeric film consumer packages were evaluated in respect to compositional and quality changes. CA-stored spears retained more sugars, organic acids, and soluble proteins than spears stored in air. Spears stored in vented consumer packages had a useful life of 14 days, whereas those in nonvented packages started to break down after 8 days. Spears from vented packages lost more weight but retained more sugars and organic acids than those from nonvented packages.
Pods of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) stored in an atmosphere of 5% O2 and 10% CO2 at 10 ± 1C were compared with pods stored in air at the same temperature to determine the effects of storage environment on physical characteristics and ethylene evolution of the pods. Controlled-atmosphere-(CA) stored pods lost less weight, retained total solids and chlorophyll better, and had a higher mucilage viscosity than air-stored pods. Toughness, fibrousness, and incidence of microbial decay were lower in CA-stored pods than in air-stored pods. No differences were seen in the levels of alcohol-insoluble solids or discoloration of the cut surface between pods from the two storage environments. Ethylene evolution was lower in CA- than air-stored pods.
A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the hydrophilic polymer Waterlock B100 on the imbibition, respiration, and germination of seeds of the sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharum) hybrid ‘Mevak’ at soil water matric potentials of -0.01, -0.40, -1.0, and - 1.5 MPa. Coated seeds had a higher final percentage of imbibition, higher rates of respiration, and germination at -0.01 and -0.40 MPa than uncoated seeds, but as the water potential decreased, the seed coating had a deleterious effect on the physiological processes leading to germination.
Grower tours, one of the most effective agricultural extension teaching methods (13), have been conducted for many years to production areas generally unfamiliar to participating growers and agribusiness people. Most consist simply of a sequence of visits to farms or agribusinesses where the owners (managers) of the visited businesses explain the operation observed as the tour proceeds through the facility.
Four levels (1.1, 2.3, 4.6, and 9.1 g/kg seed) of the hydrophilic polymer Waterlock B100 were used as seed coatings to enhance stand establishment and plant growth of sweet corn (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata) during the spring and summer of 1983 on 2 soil types in Minnesota. The level with the best overall response in 1983 was used in 1984 to observe the response of 4 sweet corn hybrids. The 2.3 and 4.6 g treatment were most beneficial in enhancing stand establishment in sweet corn. At all levels, however, Waterlock B100 had a deleterious effect on cowpea germination and seedling development. One sweet corn hybrid showed a significant positive response to the coating during 1984. This reponse was attributed to a uniform pericarp which allowed an even seed coating.
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) pods stored In a controlled atmosphere (CA) of 5% O2 and 10% CO2 at 11 ± 1C and in air at the same temperature (RA) were compared to determine the effects of the two storage environments on changes in sugars, organic acids, proteins and amino acids, and ascorbic acid contents within the tissue. Pods were sampled at 3-day intervals for 12 days. CA-stored pods generally had greater retention of sugars, soluble proteins, and amino acids than RA-stored pods. Citric, malic, and ascorbic acids contents of CA pods also declined more slowly than those of RA pods.
This study was conducted to determine if changes in the raffinose: sucrose ratio in embryos of shrunken-2 sweet corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids were related to differences in seed leachate conductivity between two hybrids harvested at four maturities and artificially dried to 0.10 g H2O/g fresh weight. The ratio of raffinose: sucrose differed for `Crisp N' Sweet 710' (CNS) and `How Sweet It Is' (HSII). The mass ratio of raffinose: sucrose in CNS was >0.3 in seed harvested between 0.44 to 0.64 g H2O/g fresh weight and increased as seed dried from the initial harvest moisture to 0.10 g H2O/g fresh weight. Raffinose: sucrose ratios of HSII were <0.3 at all harvests between 0.55 to 0.72 g H2O/g fresh weight, but changes during desiccation were not as pronounced. Leachate conductivity of whole seeds of CNS and HSII decreased as seeds were harvested at progressively lower moisture contents. We suggest that a higher raffinose: sucrose ratio may be indicative of increased seed vigor in shrunken-2 hybrids.
Sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. rugosa Bonaf.) seed carrying the mutant endosperm gene shrunken-2 (sh2) are very susceptible to seed rot and pre- and post-emergence damping off. Experiments were conducted to determine if selected organic solvents were suitable carriers for fungicide infusion of sh2 sweet corn seed for improved germination and stand establishment. Seed of `Florida Staysweet' and `Crisp-n-Sweet 710' were immersed in acetone, cyclohexane, decahydronaphthalene (Decalin), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, or xylene for 5 seconds, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 hours, air-dried, and subjected to a cold-stress test. Total germination and percentage of normal seedlings in both cultivars were significantly decreased after 8 hours of immersion in acetone. Average seedling dry weight, however, did not decrease. DMSO was highly toxic to both cultivars. Ethanol increased seed mortality with increasing immersion times. Cyclohexane, Decalin, and xylene caused erratic responses in all measured variables as immersion time increased. In a second experiment, the effects of immersion time up to 4 hours in acetone on germination and vigor of 11 sh2 cultivars were compared. There was no correlation between cultivar germination or vigor and immersion in acetone. Results indicate acetone could be used to infuse fungicides into the seed of some sh2 cultivars without compromising seed germination or vigor. However, each sh2 cultivar must be screened individually to determine if it is a suitable candidate for organic solvent infusion of fungicides.
Asparagus offcinalis L. `Mary Washington' seedlings inoculated with Glomus fasciculatum (Thaxter) Gerd. and Trappe emend. Walker and Koske showed increased growth after 9 weeks, compared with noninoculated plants. Phosphorus supplementation (25 g·m-3) increased seedling growth of inoculated and noninoculated plants throughout the 26 weeks of the experiment. However, after 9 weeks, there were no differences in growth of inoculated, non-P-supplemented plants and noninoculated, P-supplemented plants. Fern height, fern and crown weight, and bud numbers correlated positively to the percentage of G. fasciculatum root infection.