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  • Author or Editor: Lulu Zhang x
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Bletilla is an Orchidaceae genus with high medical value, including detumescence, antibacterial, and hemostasis. In this study, detailed estimates of ploidy level, karyotype, and genome size were first obtained, and a comprehensive cytological analysis was carried out to better understand the evolution of the genus. The karyotypes of Bletilla were mainly composed of metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes with lengths ranging from 1.25 to 4.93 μm. There was moderate cytological variation in Bletilla (chromosome number 2n = 32 to 76). Diploid with 2n = 34 and 2n = 36 was detected in Bletilla ochracea and Bletilla formosana, respectively, whereas diploid (2n = 32) was dominant in Bletilla striata, dysploidy (2n = 34, 2n = 36) and polyploid (2n = 48, 51, 64, 76) variations were also observed. Three species had a relatively symmetric karyotype, and which of B. ochracea was more asymmetry. The genome size (1C-values) varied from 2.94 pg (B. striata) to 3.33 pg (B. ochracea), of which B. ochracea was significantly larger than the others (P < 0.05). A positive correlation (P < 0.01) between 1Cx vs. haploid chromosome length (HCL) and asymmetry coefficient of karyotypes (AsK%) was observed.

Open Access

Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planchon) is an economically important fruit, and its flowering and production are affected by the chill accumulation in winter. In this study, the chilling requirements of nine kiwifruit cultivars with three ploidy levels (diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid) were analyzed by using the Dynamic Model, Utah Model, and chilling hours (CH) Model. The chilling requirements for vegetative budbreak of these kiwifruit cultivars were 24–55 chill portions (CP), 316–991 chill units (CU), and 222–853 CH, and the chilling requirements for floral emergence were 45–69 CP, 825–1336 CU, and 655–1138 CH. The chilling requirements for vegetative budbreak and floral emergence were significantly lower for diploid than hexaploid cultivars with tetraploid cultivars intermediate. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that ploidy levels were positively correlated with chilling requirement, with the cv of 0.74 and 0.82 for vegetative budbreak and floral emergence chilling requirements, respectively. In conclusion, these results provide some novel insights of kiwifruit varieties of various chilling requirements, which is beneficial for kiwifruit cultivar selection for different climates and environments.

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