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Luiz Argenta, Xuetong Fan, and James Mattheis

The efficacy of the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) applied in water to slow ripening of `Golden Delicious' [Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] apples was evaluated in comparison with 1-MCP applied as a gas in air. The material was applied by dipping fruit in 1-MCP water solutions (0, 0.03, 0.3 or 3 μM) for 4 min, or by exposing fruit to 1-MCP gas (0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1 μL·L-1) in air for 12 h. Fruit were held in air at 20 °C for 25 days after treatment or stored at 0.5 °C in air for up to 6 months followed by 7 days in air at 20 °C. Application of 1-MCP in water or air delayed the increase in respiration and ethylene production associated with fruit ripening, and reduced the amount of fruit softening, loss of acidity and change in peel color. Treatments applied in water required a concentration 700-fold higher compared to those applied in air to induce similar physiological responses. Fruit responses to 1-MCP varied with treatment concentration, and the maximum effects were obtained at concentrations of 0.1 or 1 μL·L-1 in air and 3 μM in water. Peel color change was impacted less than retention of firmness and titratable acidity for some 1-MCP treatments. Treatment with 1-MCP was less effective for slowing peel degreening when treated fruit were stored at 0.5 °C compared to storage at 20 °C. In 1 of the 3 years of this study, fruit treated with 1-MCP and stored in air at 0.5 °C developed a peel disorder typified by a gray-brown discoloration that is unlike other disorders previously reported for this cultivar.

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Xuetong Fan, Luiz Argenta, and James Mattheis

`Bartlett' and `d'Anjou' pear fruit were treated after harvest with MCP at 0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1 mL•L-1 and then stored at 1 °C. After storage, half of the fruit was continuously exposed to 10 mL•L-1 ethylene for 7 days in a flow-through system at 20 °C. A treatment concentration effect was evident for both respiration and ethylene production, all MCP concentrations reduced respiration and ethylene production by `d'Anjou' and `Bartlett' fruit compared to controls. Fruit quality changes in `d'Anjou' and `Bartlett' fruit were delayed by MCP treatment. Firmness and titratable acidity were higher through 4 months storage for `Bartlett' fruit treated at the two higher MCP rates. After 2 months, `Bartlett' fruit treated at the two higher MCP rates remained green, but, after 4 months, all fruit were yellow. Loss of firmness and titratable acidity was also reduced following MCP treatment of `d'Anjou' fruit. Yellowing of `d'Anjou' fruit was prevented by MCP treatment, even when fruit were exposed to ethylene after removal from storage. Poststorage ethylene exposure did not overcome the effects of MCP. Development of superficial and senescent scald was prevented by MCP treatment.

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Luiz C. Argenta, Xuetong Fan, and James P. Mattheis

The efficacy of the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) applied in water to slow ripening of ‘Golden Delicious’ [Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] apples was evaluated in comparison with 1-MCP applied in air. The material was applied by dipping fruit in 1-MCP water solutions (0.03, 0.3, or 3 mmol·m−3) for 4 min or by exposing fruit to 1-MCP gas (0.42, 4.2, or 42 μmol·m−3) in air for 12 h. Fruit were held in air at 20 °C for 25 days after treatment or stored at 0.5 °C in air for up to 6 months followed by 7 days in air at 20 °C. Application of 1-MCP in water or air delayed the increase in respiration and ethylene production associated with fruit ripening and reduced the amount of fruit softening, loss of acidity, and change in peel color. Treatments applied in water required a 700-fold higher amount of active ingredient compared with treatments applied in air to induce similar physiological responses. Fruit responses to 1-MCP varied with treatment concentration, and the maximum effects were obtained at concentrations of 4.2 or 42 μmol·m−3 in air and 3 mmol·m−3 in water. Peel color change was impacted less than retention of firmness and titratable acidity for 1-MCP treatments applied at concentrations of 4.2 or 42 μmol·m−3 in air and 0.3 or 3 mmol·m−3 in water. Treatment with 1-MCP in air or water was less effective for slowing peel degreening when treated fruit were stored at 0.5 °C compared with storage at 20 °C. Fruit treated with 1-MCP and stored in air at 0.5 °C developed a peel disorder typified by a gray·brown discoloration that is unlike other disorders previously reported for this cultivar. Symptoms were present when fruit were removed from cold storage and no change in symptom appearance was observed during a 7-d holding period at 20 °C.

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Xuetong Fan, David Buchanan, Luiz Argenta, and James Mattheis

Pre-climacteric `Gala' apple fruit treated with air (control) or 2 μmol·L–1 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP) were exposed to gamma irradiation at 0, 0.5, 1, or 1.5 kGy at 23 °C. Fruit were held at 20 °C for 3 weeks after treatment during which respiration rate, production of ethylene and other volatile compounds, fruit firmness, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, and irradiation injury were determined. MCP treatment reduced respiration and ethylene production and slowed loss of fruit firmness and titratable acidity. Irradiation induced increased respiration of MCP-treated fruit in a dosage-dependent fashion. Irradiation caused a decrease in ethylene production by control (non-MCP) fruit, and the magnitude of the decrease was dependent on irradiation dosage. Irradiation at 0.5, 1, and 1.5 kGy stimulated ethylene production of MCP-treated fruit for only 1 day after treatment. Irradiation induced internal browning and the injury severity increased with dosage. The severity and incidence of irradiation damage were higher in MCP-treated fruit than control fruit. The results indicate that ethylene is involved in mediating apple fruit responses to irradiation.