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  • Author or Editor: Lu Gan x
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Turfgrass performance under drought stress is impeded by plant water deficit and oxidative damage, which might be improved by the external application of osmoprotectants. Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) is a valuable species for low-cut golf surfaces as a result of its high density and fine texture. However, weak tolerance to drought stress is a primary shortcoming. In this study, the effect of exogenous glycinebetaine (GB) pretreatment on mitigating the damage from drought stress in creeping bentgrass cultivar ‘T-1’ was evaluated. Pieces of creeping bentgrass sod were subjected to four treatments: 1) well-watered control, 2) well watered and sprayed with 100 mm GB, 3) drought stress, and 4) drought stress and sprayed with 100 mm GB. Drought stress resulted in a remarkable decrease in turf quality (TQ), relative water content (RWC), and chlorophyll content, with significant increases in superoxide anion content (O2 ), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) activity. In contrast, pretreatment with 100 mm GB decreased the O2 and MDA content in water-stressed plants, and increased turf quality, chlorophyll content, SOD, CAT, and POD activity. Meanwhile, the expression level of the psbA, SAMS4, CMO, and ACS1 genes in leaf samples collected during the drought-stress stage was elevated in GB pretreatment. Notably, SAMS4 gene expression in GB pretreatment was significantly greater than in the untreated GB groups subjected to water stress. These results suggested that GB could mitigate the adverse effect of water stress on creeping bentgrass. The amelioration related strongly to the maintenance of the antioxidant enzyme system, accumulated endogenous compatible metabolites, and the elevation of gene expression levels. These findings lead us to conclude that GB pretreatment could be used as an ameliorative agent for creeping bentgrass against the deleterious effects of water stress.

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Production nurseries may be significant sources of nutrients and pesticides in runoff as a result of the intensity at which fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation water are applied. Concentrations of nutrients and pesticides in runoff from production nurseries are not extensively documented. Runoff from 11 production nurseries in southern California using either recycling or detention basins was monitored for nutrients and pesticides. For six sites, runoff volume was determined and nutrient loads in runoff were calculated. Water use data, percentage of water recycled, and construction costs were determined for sites with recycling systems. Nutrient concentrations, mass loads, and pesticide detections in runoff from some sites would have been of concern without the implementation of detention or recycle basins. There were few differences in nutrient concentrations or pesticide detections between runoff from irrigation and that from precipitation events. This suggests the need for management practices and technologies that address runoff from both irrigation and precipitation events. Water use and cost data suggested that the implementation of recycling systems may be more beneficial and cost-efficient for larger facilities.

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