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  • Author or Editor: Lloyd W. Martin x
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Abstract

Mechanical harvesting of raspberries and blackberries is accepted practice in the Pacific Northwest (14). Commercial development of mechanical harvesters began in the 1950s when the Weygandt machine was introduced to harvest black raspberries in Oregon (22). Subsequent research in Arkansas and Oregon contributed to the development of mechanization (2, 11), and blackberries and later red raspberries were successfully harvested with machines in the 1960s (5). Progress in cane and bush berry harvesting was reported by Nelson and Booster (17) in 1969, by Martin and Lawrence (13) in 1976, and was reviewed by Booster (4) in 1983.

Open Access

Abstract

Abundant (‘Hood’ and ‘Benton’) and poor (‘Olympus’) runnering cultivars of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) were grown in a milled-bark medium over an 8- or 16-fold range of slow-release ureaform N. Growth was poor or normal at low and intermediated rates of N, but inhibited at high rates. Number of leaves, crowns, and runners and subsequent inflorescence and flower production were frequently less than maximum at the highest level of N (4.8 gN/liter bark medium). Applied N had a significant effect on the number of crowns/plant, inflorescences/crown and flowers/inflorescence. In all cultivars, percent N in leaves in August, or in the entire shoot in November, showed a significant linear relationship with applied N. ‘Hood’ accumulated a higher concentration of N in both parts than ‘Olympus’ or ‘Benton’. Flower production in all cultivars was significantly correlated with the percent N in the shoot in November. Although the optimum range of applied N was similar for all cultivars, ‘Olympus’ was the most responsive to N in terms of increased leaf and flower production. When maximum values are compared, ‘Olympus’ in one year produced over 40% more leaves and 75% more flowers but at least 74% fewer runners than ‘Hood’ or ‘Benton’. ‘Benton’ was the only cultivar that at low and intermediate rates of applied N averaged less than one inflorescence/crown. Crown production by the 3 cultivars was not significantly different and high levels of applied N failed to increase the number of crowns available for flower initiation above those obtained at intermediate rates.

Open Access

Abstract

Three treatments of combined N and K (0, 67, or 135 kgha−1 of each element) were applied to ‘Thornless Evergreen’ blackberries [Rubus laciniatus (West.) Willd]. Fruit were harvested in 1981-1984 with a Littau self-propelled harvester; yield, fruit size, soluble solids, and firmness were measured. Fruit pH, acidity, and anthocyanin content were measured in 1983 and 1984. Treatments affected yield, fruit characteristics, and leaf mineral composition; the intermediate treatment level was the most desirable. There was not a consistent relationship of N and K levels of primocane leaves or soil K level with yield, fruit size, soluble solids, or firmness of the fruit regardless of whether the fruit samples were taken the same year as the leaf and soil samples or the year following. We conclude that the currently recommended rates of N and K for ‘Thornless Evergreen’ need refinement.

Open Access

Abstract

Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L, cv. Meeker) was grown with either 3-m or alternate 3-m and 1.5-m between-row spacing. Canes were trained as: a) pruned upright bundles, b) pruned and individually woven canes, or c) unpruned looped bundles, all secured to wires 1.5 m high. Training did not consistently affect yield as obtained with a Littau mechanical harvester. Fruit size was smallest in the unpruned bundles. The amount of fruit that dropped between or during harvests was substantial, but was similar for row spacings and training systems.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Linn’, ‘Olympus’, and ‘Totem’ strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) were defoliated on various dates in 1979 during mechanical harvest or by leaf mowing after hand harvest, and numbers of crown divisions, runners, and inflorescences as well as berry size, fruit rot, and yield were measured in 1980. The only difference attributable to defoliation dates was berry size in ‘Olympus’ and ‘Totem’. Defoliation by mechanical harvest did not adversely affect subsequent plant growth and yield.

Open Access

Abstract

Three basic types of blackberries (Rubus spp.) are grown in the United States: 1) erect and semierect, 2) western trailing, and 3) southeastern trailing, commonly called “dewberries” (22).

Open Access

Abstract

A field trial was conducted to determine whether B deficient soils (B at 0.27 µl·liter–1) contribute to low yield and fruit malformation in strawberries. B rates of 0, 1.1, 2.2, and 4.5 kg·ha–1 were applied to the soil before planting ‘Tristar’ and ‘Benton’ strawberries on 9 Apr. 1985. Soil hot-water extractable B levels in Aug. 1985 were 0.34, 0.53, 0.85, and 1.13 µl·liter–1; leaf B levels were 47, 56, 72, and 102 µl·liter–1, respectively. The effect of B rates on leaf concentration diminished as the season progressed and had no effect the following year. B application had no effect on yield or deformity the first harvest year, but decreased yield of ‘Tristar’ the second harvest year.

Open Access

Primocanes of `Marion' trailing blackberry plants (Rubus spp.) were suppressed by cutting them off at ground level in either late April, May, June, or July 1991 and 1992. A control was included in which primocanes were not cut. Four canes per plant were trained in either August or February, with all other canes being removed and measured. Yield data were collected in 1992 and 1993, after which yield components were measured. Cane diameter was greatest for unsuppressed plants and declined with later primocane removal date. Cane length was greatest for unsuppressed and April-suppressed plants. Internode length decreased and main cane percent budbreak increased with later suppression date. Cane number and total main cane length per plant were increased in April-, May-, and June-suppressed plants in 1992 and for April- and June-suppressed plants in 1993. Consequently, yield of April-suppressed plants exceeded that of unsuppressed plants in 1992. Yield of April-, May-, and June-suppressed plants exceeded that of unsuppressed plants in 1993. August-trained plants yielded 46% more than February-trained plants, primarily because of higher percent budbreak on main canes. August-trained plants also produced longer canes with more nodes and a greater number of fruit per main cane lateral.

Free access

Primocanes of `Marion' trailing blackberry plants were suppressed by cutting them off at ground level in either late April, May, June, or July 1991 and 1992. An unsuppressed control was included in which primocanes were not cut. A single cane was removed from each replication of the five primocane suppression dates at monthly intervals from mid-November to mid-February 1991-92, and from mid-November to mid-January 1992-93. One-node samples were exposed to controlled freezing at temperatures of 4, -6, -9, -12, -15, and -18C in November through February. In December and January, the-6 temperature was replaced with-21C. After 5 days at room temperature following freezing, growing point, budbase, vascular, and pith tissues were evaluated for tissue browning on a 1 to 5 scale. The LT50 developed for each suppression date was compared to the control. July-suppressed plants were generally hardiest for all tissues. June-suppressed plants were somewhat less hardy than July-suppressed plants, while April-, May- and unsuppressed plants were comparable and least hardy. Cane tissues of July-suppressed and unsuppressed plants had a higher level of soluble carbohydrates than other suppression dates.

Free access