Physiological, biochemical and anatomical indexes were investigated for rose hardiness. It was found that bound/free water ratio, proline accumulation, photosynthetic rate, palisade/spongy tissue ratio, and lignification of winter-acclimated stems were heavily influenced by the temperature causing stem browning. Spongy cell volume and stem tenderness were inversely related to winter hardiness. Data generated from this research demonstrated that catalase stability, TTC reduction rate at 0°C, total photosynthetic rate, stem pith ray number, and leaf wax thickness are good indicators for rose hardiness to freezing temperatures. Two compound indexes were developed through the main component analysis. Based on the results obtained from 12 tested cultivars, these indexes are ideal to quantify hardiness of rose germplasm.
Cold tolerance/resistance of 41 hazelnut hybrid strains was investigated by evaluating electrolyte seepage velocity, recovering growth, and tissue browning for the tested cold temperatures. Results demonstrated that electrolyte seepage velocity of all tested strains was faster as temperatures dropped down. The S curve relationship was found between seepage velocity and temperature. Turning point temperature used as the half deadly injured index (LT50) was developed using a logistic equation. The mean LT50 and temperature causing tissue browning were excellent indexes to predict cold tolerance/resistance. After treated at –30 or –35 °C and then evaluated for their recovering growth, 10 cold-resistant hybrid hazelnut strains were developed. These hybrids are being tested for regional adoption and will be released as commercial cultivars.
Based on our investigation of hazelnut germplasm and Thompson's evaluation system for European hazelnuts, an in-depth study on character description of hazelnut germplasm was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Eighty characters were evaluated for the 58 tested species. It was found that eight characters should be eliminated from Thompson's system, such as annual branch length and hair, lentical color, and serration depth. The best leaf sampling position, sample volumes for quantitative characters, and scoring standards were also determined. Therefore, an advanced evaluation system for hazelnut germplasm was developed. The advanced system is easier and simpler, and will significantly expedite systematical studies of hazelnut germplasm.