Hydrogen cyanamide (CY) induced earlier, more uniform, and a higher percentage of budbreak in poplar (Populus alba × P. gradidentata, N C 5339). c y was phytotoxic at 0.5 M or higher concentration. Percent budbreak increased and percent dieback decreased when plants were treated with a mixture of CY and Cys. No difference was found in percent budbreak or dieback between plants treated with CY alone and a mixture of CY and Ser. Mixing CY with Cys concentrations in vitro reduced the percentage of the cyano group, and mixing of Cys with CY concentrations decreased the percentage of the SH group remaining in the mixture. Mixing CY with Ser concentrations in vitro had no effect on CY level. These studies suggest that the SH group reacts with CY directly and the improvement of budbreak and toxicity caused by mixing CY and Cys may be due to the reduction of CY concentration.
Liping Zhen and Leslie H. Fuchigami
Steven P. Castagnoli, Leslie H. Fuchigami, Tony H. H. Chen and Liping Zhen
Studies were performed on the development of dormancy, cold hardiness, and desiccation tolerance, and the effect of manual defoliation timing on performance of `Fuji' and `Braeburn' apple nursery stock. Dormancy development, response to defoliation, and desiccation tolerance of apple differed from those reported for other temperate woody plant species. Dormancy development in `Fuji' was approximately two weeks ahead of `Braeburn', and was strongly regulated by temperature. Photoperiod had no influence on dormancy development of `Fuji'. Desiccation tolerance of both varieties was greatest just prior to the onset of dormancy and early dormancy. This pattern in the seasonal development of tolerance to desiccation is not typical of temperate woody plant species. Early defoliation was detrimental to performance of `Braeburn', but had little effect on `Fuji'. Early defoliation promoted earlier spring budbreak in `Fuji'. Development of freezing tolerance in both apple varieties was typical of other woody plants, and coincided with the onset of dormancy. Maximum hardiness was achieved after the requirements for dormancy were completely satisfied.